Political Editor, Barotseland Post
By Lindunda Wamunyima
The scope of education for entrepreneurship programmes can be delivered in a wide range of settings that are geographical (e.g. Barotseland), administrative (national, provincial, locally or at a school level), work, organisations large or small, private or charitable, as part of national and regional campaigns on education for entrepreneurship programmes.
Most African Education Systems were set up by colonial administration primarily to train young people for civil service Barotseland inclusive. In other words, the young people in school were being moulded to take up limited available civil service job profiles and hierarchies; the same trend today. The danger with this kind of curriculum is that when the civil service becomes saturated then the cadre of unemployed but learned youths is created or manufactured by the school system. By implication, such school products are thus, ‘employees’ and not ‘workers’ since they are oriented toward being ‘used’ as handymen to work for the government of the day. They are in fact job seekers and not job creators, as they graduate from the colleges or universities. If readymade jobs are not available the tendency is to roam and idle or be pestered by indolence; as employees of evil vices. Good education in Barotseland should prepare learners for employment and/or work. Table below shows some notable differences between work and employment, for the purpose of this article.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WORK AND EMPLOYMENT
1. There is personalization or ownership of activity knowing that all depends on the worker, otherwise untold misery will result from personal laziness.
2. Commitment to the task is meant to last as long as life or task lasts, depending on which one expires or exhausts out first.
3. Motivation on the job is intrinsically driven – self motivation is the norm.
4. Earnings are mostly determined by the amount of effort invested (time, money and entrepreneurship) in the work and not really factors like qualification, relation with employer, etc.
1. Lacking identification with the activity because all depends on the employer and not the employee, for progress’ sake. So, I can strike, seat-in, etc.
2. Commitment to tasks is only dependent on the contractual terms enshrined therein as conditions of service.
3. Motivation on the job is mostly extrinsic – must be driven by ‘external’ factors.
4. Earnings to a greater extent depend on intrapreneurial properties defined around qualification, experience and other factors usable in determining remuneration of an employee.
A home setting analogy can best explain this further. Household members work to keep their homes what they should be, after receiving their formal and informal education in the social life context. They are not employed to be husband, wife, son, and daughter. It is only contracted workers who work as employees called domestic ‘workers’. Here one finds a typical example of what may be called a worker and employee, whether an entrepreneur or intrapreneur, in learners, after receiving their formal education in the academic and economic context of life. The attitude of worker therefore, should be infused in the school curriculum whereby learners are taught to love and own their school work as a ‘business enterprise’. Entrepreneurship education should not only focus on narrow defined tools (e.g. how to start up a business, financial and human resources management) but also in broader attitudes (e.g. creativity, risk taking, etc.) especially on the lower and secondary school levels.
This nurtures entrepreneurship which is a more sustainable form of work than a job and employment which are highly susceptible to economic swings and doldrums leading to such states as retrenchments and joblessness when government is unable to recruit and employ job seekers. This does not mean however, that the creation of jobs should not be done both in the private and civil service. To the contrary this should be done by reforming both the curricula and teaching methods.
A job is not supposed to be taken as a synonym for career, for the two terms mean different things altogether. For instance, career is a series of jobs that follow a hierarchy of levels or degree of difficulty. A career gives someone time to be established in an organization, then advance or progress in it, maintain the gains thereof before getting retirement, whichever way.
A job is simply a task or activity one can do usually for a short spell of time, to make ends meet. A closer analysis of the two reveals that a career is long term focused whereas a job is short term and is a sub-set of a career. So job creation is highly deceptive and unsustainable concept.
If this is something to go by then clarity needs to be sought with some educationists and politicians regarding the misnomer of the terms. In some cases they are used interchangeably. The clarity of terms is important in this case to avoid complicating the predicaments of school leavers or graduates who may find themselves in structural unemployment or other forms related to the curriculum studied. For job creation is not the same as career creation. It must be clarified as to whether learners or students are being prepared for jobs, careers or both, for this really matters at the end of schooling venture since its outcomes determine the issues of bread and butter in one’s life.
Barotseland faces an enormous unemployment challenge. The problem is particularly concentrated among the country’s youths, for whom lack of experience is compounded by lack of skills and capital, even in the presence of Citizens Economic Empowerment Commissions and the like. This results in a growing cohort of young people with severely limited access to formal sector employment/work, and limited means to do anything about it. The situation has been our “norm” since Zambian Independence day 1964. From what has been said so far there comes one echo, voicing education for entrepreneurship as the most formidable relief to the social and economic anathema of unemployment in new Barotseland.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP, SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND PRODUCTIVITY
Human resources, physical resources, information resources, knowledge resources, capital resources and infrastructure all form part of factor endowment a nation like Barotseland needs. Human resource is actually labour, one of the four factors of production namely capital, land, entrepreneurship and labour. In this case, labour includes all the three classes vis-à-vis unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled labour, whose background can be traced back to school and its curriculum. The numbers of these available workers or employees, their skills and costs thereof have a great impact on the condition of other factor endowments in relation to the Barotseland’s position in factors of production such as skilled labour, necessary to compete in the national, regional and global industry. The curriculum is the key in the education and training of labour, to prepare for economic participation whether in private, parastatal or government sectors, in our country.
When all has been said and done what counts is the production or performance of the product learner, in the work world. In judging performance we must look “beyond” and not “behind”; what a child is capable of doing and not what he or she has failed to do especially in examinations. That is only possible if the curriculum matter has been taken care of correctly. Then the passing of one learner does not become the failure of another. In other words, examinations are not seen really to be a ‘discriminating’ tool but rather an aid to spur each learner to self-actualization, in a win-win situation, as opposed to the current scenario of the inherited Zambian colonial education system, since each one is unique and has an area of excellence as endowment where performance is better than anyone else. Conversely, the Zambian School Curriculum has had very little offering to the considerable percentage of learners in Barotseland ‘failing’ to make the grade as it were. This is even true for the ended 2015 Grade 7, Grade 9 and Grade 12 Examinations; ‘failures’ are still expected.
IMPLICATIONS OF FAILED EDUCATION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BAROTSELAND
Certain notable implications for any economy like Barotseland are discussed following, so that appropriate situational analysis is conducted; solutions and implementation plans are pursued accordingly. The following is the listing of the implications:
• DETERIORATED UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: owing to learner factor. The learner must be available, committed and compliant to the demands and goals of national education for his/her personal life. When learner needs are not adequately catered for by education system then the product learner will apparently not be available. The 21st century is seen as a chaos century in management theories. This means that the worst of management of education by crisis is yet to be seen, unless radical measures are taken to arrest the trend. Otherwise, this entails more social unrests from the unoccupied youths in terms of work or employment careers.
• INCREASED STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT: Organizational strata are mostly for formal blue and white collar employees; (semi-skilled and skilled workers) filling up certain positions in the hierarchies. The high failure rates from schooling system only help to worsen the problem instead of improving it from its current position. The 21st century paradigm shifts in organizational engineering are also exasperating the situation but entrepreneurial education can mitigate the negative effects.
• DISCULTURATION OF SOCIETY: since education and culture are twins of the same coin called learning, any damage done to one devalues the other and the social unit at large. In essence, if education is seen to be ineffective in equipping the youths with economic independence, then they will gradually and eventually lose faith in the schooling system. Sociologically, the disturbances of schooling system will thus equally destabilize the society.
• SATURATION OF LABOUR MARKET: when learners are willing to pursue studies for employment and not work purposes. It is well known that the rate of labour absorption is slower than its attrition. For example, in most African countries 65 years is the chronological retirement age. Therefore, it takes some good 40 years to replace a youth employed at 25 years in civil service, against thousands of graduates every year qualifying for the same post. Imagine how many youths will have unsuccessfully vied for the same post in course of the 25 years!
• DISILLUSIONED EDUCATION SYSTEM: due to apparent system dissonance among its stakeholders regarding philosophical perspectives that are either alien, not known or doubted by the majority of educationists, politicians, parents and even the learners.
• DEPRECIATED ENTREPRENEURIAL BASE: many potential learner entrepreneurs drop out as ‘failures’ and go into the valley of oblivion and obsoleteness because of the perceived injustices of the education system. All schools in Barotseland must be functional in terms of nurturing young people’s talent, teaching them to work hard and to be the best they can be, in their endowments.
This being the case, our government needs to seriously think about including entrepreneurial spirited education ecosystem in Barotseland. As we connect our country experiences from past, present and future. It is interesting to note we will have had four generations of entrepreneurs namely First, Second, Third and Fourth.
Our first generation of indigenous Barotse entrepreneurs were mostly peasant farmers (pre-1964) followed by the second generation (during Zambianship days; 1964 - 2012) comprising traders of various merchandise, owners of butcheries, transport, real estates and bars. The third generation of entrepreneurship in Barotseland is that in the interim period of the Transition Government engaged in most forms of current entrepreneurship driven by the information age, corporate social responsibility and quite confident about participating in the local, regional and global markets. Following this will be the fourth generation of entrepreneurs as those businesses that will be economic participants in the complete new Barotseland who, as global citizens, will be ready to compete internationally through innovation and adopting cutting edge technologies. They will be more socially responsible generation eager to give back to the community, this way help Barotseland accelerate her development agenda.
It is a dominant trend globally that entrepreneurs especially SMMEs are the main innovators, job creators and economic growth fosters and not governments nor multinational corporations in an economy.
THIS WAY OUR POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE WILL FIND ITS FULL MEANING AUGMENTED BY A VIBRANT ENTREPRENEURIALLY ORIENTED EDUCATION SYSTEM.
Muyoyange wino wino.
See also BAROTSE CHANGE: An Education for Entrepreneurship Perspective - [ PART 1] here: http://barotselandpost.com/index.php/all-news/features/item/1987-barotse-change-an-education-for-entrepreneurship-perspective-part-1
By Lindunda Wamunyima
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s (GEM) most recent report of 2013 states in part that “for the second consecutive year, Zambia registered the highest early stage entrepreneurship rate of all the GEM economies”. The report further asserts that 77% of Zambians perceive good opportunities for starting a business in the next six months. On the other hand an overwhelming majority at 80% believe they have the skills and knowledge necessary to start a business. The high rates reported suggest that the country’s pool of potential entrepreneurs is much higher than that in other countries. The fear of failure rate among Zambians intending to start or run an enterprise ranks among the lowest in the world and stand at 15%. “Not surprisingly, the majority of the Zambian adult population has entrepreneurial intentions and expects to start a business within the next three years…..The report continues “There are also very positive societal impressions regarding the attractiveness of entrepreneurship; the majority of Zambians see entrepreneurship as a good career choice (67%), that it affords high status (71%) and receives positive media attention (69%). These positive attitudes, coupled with other factors, have resulted in a high level of entrepreneurial activity in Zambia. Unfortunately, the country has among the lowest rates of entrepreneurship sustainability, emphasis supplied. The average entrepreneur in Zambia is middle-aged, of either sex and with a relatively modest level of education.”
“Despite the positive signs, on the whole the entrepreneurial climate in Zambia is not conducive to the development of new businesses. To a large extent, this explains why entrepreneurship sustainability in Zambia is among the lowest in the world. The key challenge for government is to formulate policies which promote sustainable entrepreneurial activity in the country.”
The rest of the report is available at http://www.gemconsortium.org/country-profile/120
This is the same government system we just came out of as Barotseland and certainly the report data informants and findings include Lozis. It is therefore very prudent for us and our leaders to critique the findings in the best interest of our national economic development strategy.
In Barotseland we need a current CURRICULUM THEORY and PRACTICE (The Philosophical framework) as a blueprint of our education system), in keeping with current learner needs not only in Barotseland but also in our globalizing planet earth we are part of; using the Interim Period to plan ahead accordingly. While we must concentrate on the political and legal aspects of our Barotse Change equal attention must be given to the competing component issues integral to Barotse Government, state and nation as equally key to our complete independence status.
IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN BAROTSELAND
Even though we missed out on UN’s Millennial Goals dubbed as “Go 1 Million”, the subject is still significant to our politicians, educationists and others to help them understand how best to achieve the now Millennial Development Goals (MDGs) for our children in the context of being Lozis, African and now Global citizens. Needless to state that the learners exiting the Barotse basic education system of schooling will be accorded an opportunity to unleash their full potential in career pursuits; as entrepreneurs or intrapreneurs, in a more sustainable manner when beset by different economic doldrums.
This subject’s importance lies in the fact that it will contribute to an improved Socio-economic status or standard of living, especially for the old Barotzish disadvantaged and product victims of the ‘basification’ and ‘massification’ education, in the schooling process of Barotseland inherited under the auspices of ‘Zambia’. This will be realized when an increased number of young people (our future leaders and economic key players) become active participants and sustainable Entrepreneurs in the national economy and consequently, contribute to regional and global economies, because of their educational background.
Education involves many concepts some of which are training, schooling, curriculum, teacher, classroom, resources and learning, with the latter being the umbrella.
True education acknowledges and caters for learner diversity by being itself diversified and specialized. True education is concerned with,
• Transmission of what is worthwhile to those who become committed to it. What is worthwhile here implies skills, knowledge, aptitudes, values and beliefs (SKAVB), in the Barotseland context. This may involve the following among others:
• Knowledge, understanding and some sort of ‘cognitive perspective’ which is not inert. In the local context this means the philosophic perspective which underlies Curriculum Theory and Practice of National Curriculum Statement policies on education. It is interesting to note that while Dr. Kenneth Kaunda tried to implement this through Humanism to inform every national policy like on education. His successor presidents seemed to have been bereft of the central focus philosophically or ideologically. The result of such an education system is obvious and evident..
• Ruling out of some procedures of transmission of the curricular package. However, this should not be on grounds that they deprive a learner of willingness and voluntariness to do educational activities; as the focal player in the education system. This is with a realization that indoctrination and stereotyping of learners may work well in religion but not in a school system.
As can be seen from the aforementioned statements, education is an imperative continuum and process that aims to obtain an overall and broad view, considering all variables and keeping all problems in perspective. Our education system also will need restoration from where Lewanika’s legacy left it, who can rightfully be called the “Father of Zambian Education” due to his early involvements in the same subject.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND CULTURE
School curriculum is a body of knowledge-content and or subjects offered to learners by an institution of learning. Education in this sense is the process by which the SKAVBs are developed and transmitted or ‘delivered’ to learners by the most effective methods that can be devised. It is actually the whole range of educational experiences of a particular course, grade, school or nation comprising both the visible and invisible, tangibles and intangibles offered to a student. In other words the SKAVBs herein stated refer to educational offering as one package in the learner’s “experiences”, at school. As can be seen already, the definition encapsulates passing on of a culture. Perhaps this is why School curriculum can be described as the vehicle by which the school communicates elements of the general culture. Curriculum implies content, aims, training, worthwhileness and culture. Therefore, school system and society are linked by culture in any given nation, Silozi culture and Barotseland inclusive.
The term curriculum is derived from a Latin word currere, which means to run a race. This means that the idea of curriculum is hardly new – but rather the way it is understood and theorized today has evolved over the years, from the antique theories of Greece and Latin, actually with the evolution of the concept of school.
As a race, the analogy implication is that the curriculum is an activity with a starting and end point, involving people in three camps, namely organizers and sponsors, spectators, and athletes all as participants or stakeholders. As a race it also demands the attention of all involved. This is precisely how fittingly the curriculum is of educationists and politicians, parents and community, and learners who need to be well consulted. However, one notable inconsistence with the analogy is that in a race there is a winner and a loser whereas in school all learners are expected to be ‘initiates’ or winners. Like athletics is under the umbrella of sports so is the curriculum under education, as a tool used to achieve the aims of education. Conversely, while the curriculum is education, education is not the curriculum in this sense just like athletics is sports and sports is not athletics – it has a broader scope.
One famous philosopher Aristotle characterized the curriculum into three main parts namely the theoretical (syllabus), the practical (process) and the productive (product). Essentially, he shows the idea that learning is a planned and guided activity with pre-meditated goals (productive), content (theory) and methods (process) of how to achieve the aims of schooling or acculturation.
An entrepreneur on the other hand is defined as an individual who conceptualizes, organizes, launches, and innovatively nurtures a business opportunity into a potentially high growth venture in a complex and unstable environment. This way, entrepreneurs can grow their businesses and also be responsible for economic growth, product innovation and job and career creation in an economy most sustainably. Entrepreneurship is exploding in countries such as China, India, Brazil and it is responsible for positive and economic changes in such diverse countries like Israel, Iceland, Ireland, Mexico, Korea, El Salvador and South Africa. Our new country must emulate some of the world’s renowned best practices in terms of innovation, productivity and championing the entrepreneurial spirit ecosystem.
Unfortunately, entrepreneurship sustainability level in Barotseland (Zambia) is reportedly among the lowest in the world. The expert attribution to this scenario is lack of collaborated campaign in ‘Zambia’ over the subject, like the one accorded to political campaigns and electioneering. From various reports on entrepreneurship it is clear that everyone has some unique expertise in something inimitable to the individual which can be exploited as an enterprise much to the benefit of the community and self.
Sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystem enablers
It should be pointed out here that rhetoric statements such as “Job Creation” are just electioneering tools and a reflection of poor government vision statements because it is not based on a SUSTAINABLE POLICY; rather the government should provide a competitive and enabling environment for entrepreneurship ecosystem through such means as
a) Comprehensive education that integrates the subject of entrepreneurship in the school curriculum from primary to tertiary levels,
b) Conducive company registration conditions, regulatory instruments, financial support,
c) Lowering/removing entry or upstart barriers to doing business,
d) Favourable tax regimes for Small, Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs) which should not fall short of addressing the needs of small businesses, among others.
e) Enabling Business Culture that accepts SMMEs as businesses AND NOT stigmatizing enterprising people through name calling, ‘tenderpreneurship’ (illegal and unethical tender award practices), red tape, inaccessibility to markets, poor infrastructure, etc.
Therefore, the Kingdom of Barotseland’s school curriculum should endeavor to be a ‘needs curriculum’ aimed at enhancing full employment in the country, reversing the damage the Zambian education system did to our country, helping the nation unlearn the past, learning to embrace the future and also addressing human rights. The ‘rights’ education on its own is a precursor and expedition of freedom of entrepreneurship; the right to know one’s potential. This stresses the need for stakeholders of education to campaign and instill child awareness instead of child centeredness. Those learners should be aware of themselves as being centers of innovation, discovery and communication of learning, in the new Barotseland. Similarly, teachers also need to be aware of this evolution of fact.
TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN; ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CULTURE IN SOCIETY
There is a high correlation between culture and school curriculum. And if culture and curriculum are related, then general culture cannot do what the school curriculum is not doing. Similarly, school curriculum cannot do what general culture is not doing; like the sides of a coin. It is practically difficult. A half faced education system is therefore fatal to society in term of product learners and general culture itself. There is no coin with one side. Similarly, integration of entrepreneurship and learning needs to be complemented and augmented by culture at home through a meticulous integration of the two by the curriculum planners.
It is a fact that the world is changing rapidly and education is facing new challenges as one moves through the 21st century. For educators, this means new approaches to teaching and learning. One needs to “get down to business” in this century by employing a curriculum that introduces the youths to entrepreneurship program. The reasons validating this call are in light of the expected decline in structured employment by the turn of the century, due to new paradigm shifts in organizational structural engineering. Entrepreneurial skills are becoming a necessity for workers to compete in the workforce. That the acquiring of skills and attitudes (SKAVB) necessary for the workforce can be achieved through youth entrepreneurship programs. No wonder then that in the mandate for the Barotse National Youth Development Agenda (BNYDA) Policy in Barotseland entrepreneurship should be a highly recommended priority, in an attempt to increase youth employment and work opportunities.
One of the mandate objectives should aim at guiding efforts and facilitating economic participation empowerment and achievement of education and training.
Muyoyange wino wino.
See also BAROTSE CHANGE: An Education for Entrepreneurship Perspective - [ PART 2] here: http://barotselandpost.com/index.php/all-news/features/item/1989-barotse-change-an-education-for-entrepreneurship-perspective-part-2
The Barotseland National Youth League (BNYL) and the Linyungandambo National Women’s League have, in separate petitions, called on the United Nations (UN) secretary General Ban Ki Moon to prevail over Zambia, a member of the UN, for the release of all Barotseland political prisoners currently incarcerated in Zambian prisons and undergoing lengthy open-ended trials on various trumped up treason charges.
Four Barotseland independence leaders, including Barotseland Administrator General, Rt. Hon Afumba Mombotwa, have been incarcerated in Zambian prisons since December 5th 2014, while their treason trial is due to resume on Tuesday the 10th of November 2015. If convicted under Zambian laws, the treason charge carries a death sentence.
Others on trial are Mr. Kaingu of Livingstone who is facing the charge of possession of ‘seditious’ materials after a night Zambia police search allegedly found him with Barotse literature downloaded from the internet.
Meanwhile six Barotse Imilema (BI) youths were this week convicted of causing a breach of peace in a Kaoma court for having carried out a peaceful sensitization procession in Mongu that sought to educate the people concerning the Zambia police foiled BNFA organized peaceful public gathering that was scheduled for the 2nd of October 2015. However, five of their counterparts were also arrested earlier this week for organizing a peaceful fundraising procession that was aimed at raising money to enable their fellow BI youths travel to Kaoma for their appointed court hearing. The five have been charged with ‘moving around’ with seditious materials for carrying a UNPO flag which has since been confiscated from them.
The two separate petitions to the UN are here below reproduced for public records only:
1. Barotseland National Youth League (BNYL) Petition:
2. Linyungandambo National Women’s League:
The two petitions were also copied and delivered to various international bodies as well as human rights watch groups.
WARN AND CAUTION STATEMENT ON CURRENT MANEUVERS BY THE BRE AND THE GRZ ON THE MATTER OF BAROTSELAND STATEHOOD
by the BNFA Executive Committee, October 25, 2015, BNFA.INFO
Following a number of media comments by a supposedly Spokesperson for the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) concerning the quest by the people of Barotseland to bring to a close the issue of the illegal occupation of Barotseland by the Government of Zambia since 1969 when the Barotseland Agreement 1964 was terminated and, in particular, in the aftermath of the Position Statement of the BRE published in the Post Newspaper of October22, 2015, the Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA) wishes to set the record straight as follows:
1. We want to make it clear that our understanding of the current situation regarding steps and direction to be taken on the matter of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 is that the Barotse National Council, which is the highest policy making body of Barotseland to which all our institutions are subordinate, took far reaching policy decisions embodied in its Resolutions of March 27, 2012. It is also our view that all steps that have been instituted by the office of the Ngambela of Barotseland since those Resolutions were passed, including submitting a petition to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) and application for membership to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO), are in line with those Resolutions and, therefore, draw sanctity from them.
2. It is an established fact (that is, verifiable by record) that the supreme governance structure in Barotseland is the ‘Litunga-in-Council’ in which the term ‘Council’ denotes public participation in decision making process facilitated by authenticated representatives of the people from all strata of society. We note that the Katengo Legislative Council established in 1945, but made disfunctional by the Zambian government in 1965, was an elective body that carried the mandate of the people of Barotseland and that until it is reinstated as was directed by the Barotse National Council of March 27, 2012, all major policy decisions regarding the future of Barotseland as from that date can only be validly made by the said Barotse National Council. Accordingly, the decision on the future of Barotseland was made by the Resolutions of the said BNC of March 2012.
3. We wish to state that the body called the ‘Barotse Royal Establishment’ (BRE), as record will show, is an institution created by the Zambian government under the reign of President Kenneth Kaunda following his illegal proscription of the Katengo Legislation Council and the Barotse National Government that was appointed there from. The BRE does not feature in any of the authoritative statutes that had defined the governing authority of Barotseland prior to Kenneth Kaunda’s diabolic schemes of 1965 to 1969 when the Barotseland Agreement 1964 was mutilated to disposes the people of Barotseland of their institutions of governance. As a matters stand, there is no better indicator of the fact that the BRE is an impostor institution than the Barotseland Agreement 1964 where no mention of it is made. It was created and has been promoted as a smoke screen intended to hoodwink the public that Barotseland has a traditional institution of governance when in reality the BRE has no ability to exercise executive authority in Barotseland without sanction of the Zambian government. To this end there is very little that the BRE can do outside the will of the government of Zambia.
We now turn to in-depth analysis of the scenario characterizing status of the Barotseland impasse as of today:
4. Since its unconventional and illegal act to unilaterally terminate the Barotseland Agreement 1964, the Government of Zambia has treated the demands of the people of Barotseland to revisit that decision with contempt, most often taking draconian measures against proponents of Barotse autonomy and self-determination that was embodied in that noble independence treaty. This stance has been exhibited by all past administrations of the Republic of Zambia without exception, and notwithstanding that the validity of the peoples demand and the relevance of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 in keeping the unitary state of Zambia intact were never in doubt. The Zambia state’s arrogance in this respect has been sustained by the fact that Barotseland had not been in a position to cause irreparable damage to the illegal set up of the Republic of Zambia, which has persisted in the aftermath of termination of the independence unity treaty.
5. The illegal grip over Barotseland by the Government of Zambia was made possible by the demolition of the legitimate and popularly elected Barotse governance structure, the Katengo Legislation Council, which the Kaunda government sent into disarray by combination of unconstitutional action of passing of the Local Government Act No. 69 of 1965 ( http://barotselandpost.com/images/important_barotse_documents/act_69_of_1965.pdf ), threats of military action against Barotseland, arrests and detention of some uncompromising leaders of Barotseland under the cover of the State of Emergence Regulations and several acts of political chicanery leading to formal proscribing of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 by constitutional amendment in 1969 ( http://barotselandpost.com/images/important_barotse_documents/act_33_of_1969_abrogating_the_barotseland_agreement_1964.pdf ). Meanwhile, the Litunga, rendered ineffective by loss of an elective legislature and working government, became a captive of the Zambian government unable to establish stable links with the remnants of Barotseland Resistance to illegal Zambian Rule. This state of affairs persisted over the years, but the resentment among the people in respect of the withdrawal of Barotse autonomy has never died. Better organized resistance emerged with the end of the one party state dictatorship in 1991 and grew in strength with bolder and louder demands for restitution. With better organized civil society organizations, pressure for popular action augmented by the timid Barotse Royal Establishment grew. But it was not until the year 2012, when the Litunga Lubosi Imwiko II was under threat of dethronement orchestrated by President Michael Sata’s regime that the BRE yielded to the push for holding the Barotse National Council. Under the able tutelage of a newly installed Ngambela, Honourable Clement Wainyae Sinyinda, that historic gathering held on 26th and 27th March 2012 made far reaching Resolutions that set Barotseland on a ‘war footing’ to regain legitimacy as a sovereign entity which became due upon the termination of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 back in 1969, but has remained begging due lack of cohesive action occasioned by popular mandate. Needless to mention that in the absence of elected government the Barotse National Council, a meeting of all traditional leadership structures of Barotseland as supported by organized civil society, is the supreme policy making organ of Barotseland- the sole surviving organ for that matter - to which all institutions are subordinate, including the Litunga and the BRE.
6. The Barotse National Council of March 2012 took the policy decision to the effect that Barotseland accepted the termination of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 and would no longer pursue its restoration, thus freeing herself from the shackles of Zambian rule, and would thenceforth set on a path to establishing sovereignty through formal, legal and peaceful disengagement from Zambia. The Barotse Government, led by the Ngambela was particularly mandated to take all necessary steps to ensure effective implementation of the Council's Resolutions and further that the Council be reconvened as time went by to review progress and, where necessary, set other bench marks to enhance the rate of progress. On the basis of those Resolutions the Ngambela submitted a petition to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR), asking that body to make a finding that termination of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 was a violation of Article 20 of the African Charter upon which the Zambian Government must cease to have authority over Barotseland. The Ngambela also took a step to submit an application for membership to the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO) to have Barotseland benefit from the advocacy acumen this organization renders to oppressed and marginalized communities in various countries of the world.
7. The petition to the ACHPR, submitted in November 2012, has been overseen by the office the Ngambela even after the departure of Honourable Sinyinda. The BNFA was formed in March 2013 when it became apparent that the ejection of Honourable Sinyinda from office was orchestrated by the Government of President Sata after realizing its error in antagonizing the Litunga and set on a path to frustrate the implementation of the BNC Resolutions to which Honourable Sinyinda was committed. Realizing that in the absence of Honourable Sinyinda the BRE would once again lapse into a comma and let the BNC Resolutions go unattended to, the civil society groups created the BNFA, to which Hon Sinyinda was invited as Chairperson General, to provide technical support to the Office of the Ngambela in the prosecution of the matter at the ACHPR as well as UNPO membership. We wish to put it on record that while the work of compiling the evidence and arguments in respect of the petition at ACHPR has been borne by the BNFA all formal correspondence with the Commission, including filing of documents, has been done by the BRE representative appointed to warm the seat of the Ngambela prior to installation of a substantive office holder. As at March this year, the matter had progressed to a stage where the government of Zambia, as Respondent to the petition was compelled to submit counter evidence and arguments in support of its claim of legitimate authority over Barotseland, to which the office of Ngambela responded to close the phase of submissions on admissibility of the petition and set the stage for proceeding to the Commissions assessment on the merits of the case upon decision on its admissibility.
8. In respect of membership of UNPO, all we will do for now is to put on record our amusement arising from the fact that Mr. Lubasi Nalushuwa, who is Induna Kalonga and a signatory to the recent BRE statement denying knowledge of UNPO membership, was a signatory to the application for membership by Barotseland sent to UNPO Headquarters in April 2012, soon after the Barotse National Council that mandated the Ngambela to seek international intervention into the Barotseland issue.
9. It has come to our attention that the government of Zambia, under the leadership of President Edgar Chagwa Lungu, has brought pressure to bear on the BRE to forestall processing of the ACHPR petition to the merit stage and that steps have been instituted to render the matter to go into abeyance while dialogue on the Barotseland question commences locally for a supposedly home grown solution. While the exact actions taken in this respect shall become visible only after the ACHPR activity report is released to us after formal submission to the Heads of State and Government of the African Union, it is very apparent from the haste actions by both the BRE and the Zambian government that there is pressure on them, on account of the petition and attendant concerns being expressed by the leadership of the SADC region, that a solution to the issue is found before the African Union steps in.
10. In respect of press statements now pouring in from the BRE we wish to advise this traditional leadership structure not to practice excessive economy on the truth but learn to call a spade by its correct name. The BRE is now adopting a stance portraying that it has not been part to the actions that have been taken at the ACHPR and UNPO. Most importantly, the fact that these actions have been taken within the authority and mandate of the BNC Resolutions of March 2012 is being played down by the BRE. This is a display of irresponsible leadership which is most unfortunate. Record will show that the originating application for the petition to the ACHPR was submitted by the Ngambela and co-signed by Head Indunas of District Kutas and members of civil society. For this reason, the ACHPR has titled it as Communication 429/12: The Ngambela of Barotseland and Others versus the Republic of Zambia. The BNFA applied to be enjoined as part of the ‘Others’ after its formation when the petition had already passed the Seizure stage and progressing to submissions on Admissibility.
11. We take this opportunity to dispel the notion that the current offer of dialogue by the Government of Zambia as supported by some elements of the BRE is an act of benevolence by any of them. We have stated above that in the past the Zambian authority ignored the issue of Barotseland because the proponents of Barotseland independence had not yet been organized to a stage where they could threaten the integrity of the boundaries of the failed unitary state of Zambia, which the Zambia state itself has already destroyed. This situation was drastically changed by the Barotse National Council of March 2012 combined with the tenacity of rejuvenated Barotse nationalist organisations and, as a bonus, the emergence of Honourable Clement Wainyae Sinyinda as Ngambela, even though short lived. It should be easy for the BRE to realize that their new found value in the eyes of the Government of Zambia rests in the hands of those who have caused panic in the said government. The earlier they admitted this fact, the better for all concerned.
12. More importantly, we wish to caution all those currently running around in circles claiming this and that mandate and/or authority that the Barotse National Council had set the benchmarks for progressing this matter forward to which all institutions of Barotseland are bound. In this vain, it is our utmost hope that an occasion shall not arise where some actions, even when well intentioned, will not end up being declared null and void for want of competence by the actors.
by concerned Barotse citizen - Mongu
Today, Edwin is cheating the people that he wants restoration of the Barotseland Agreement 1964, which will not happen because he wants to continue chewing alone. He is cheating the Nkoyas, Mbundas, his Indunas and any other stakeholder in believing that the consultations he is making are for the people of Barotseland when in fact not. We told you this five years ago, we repeated this two years ago and we are now repeating it today when it is happening. We outlined his misdeeds below:
1. The African Parks distribution of shareholding to Mulonga is 33% where beneficiaries are: Namuso, Milonga nyana and the community around Liuwa National Park. All this money is being chewed by Edwin alone.
2. The Barotse Treaty Obligations receives an annual Parliamentary allocation for the benefit of the entire Barotseland, including Mwene Mutondo, Kahare, Chengele and Kandala. All this money is being chewed by Edwin alone.
3. Americans allocated money for opening a new museum in Lealui. Records at the American Embassy show that this money was released but no new museum has been opened. All this money was chewed by Edwin alone.
4. Contributions are being received annually for holding the Ku-o-Mboka ceremony from fund raising dinner dances, donations from organizations and GRZ but no Ku-o-mboka is taking place. All this money is being chewed by Edwin alone.
5. Edgar is releasing money for making consultations and discussions with GRZ on restoring the BA’64 at the expense of the people of Barotseland and Barotseland independence. All this money is being chewed by Edwin alone.
What makes you think that he will not continue chewing the money alone at the end of the day—it is discussions nothing more. The BA’64 will not get restored and argument of restoration will begins all over again for the next 50 years for the simple reason that the rest of Zambia will be in a much worse situation than it is today. If you don’t understand this, read the BA’64 carefully again, very carefully—it has no claim over Barotseland resources, nothing what so ever. What has been happening up today is illegal. The rest of Zambia will be better off without Barotseland for it is but a bankrupt state that cannot afford to finance a self-governing state. This is why Barotseland has lacked development and formal employment to date. It is only an independent Barotseland that would allocate public resources for the benefit of ALL and not one person.
For Edwin, it is business as usual and as he continues chewing the money alone while the rest of the people continue suffering, much worse than in the past while a few individuals stopping this deception continue dreaming about getting a salary and hope to chew like Edwin while the rest are suffering.
For Edgar, he is blinded by the desire to win the next elections. He is hoping, against hope, that the embattled Litunga and his Indunas will deliver from the small change he is giving Edwin at the expense of the suffering of the people of Barotseland while secretly setting the stage to put Barotseland on fire-blood shade at a massive scale. What is interesting is that the ACHPR, SADC, AU and the International Community are watching and letting this to happen, urging both Edwin and Edgar to quickly put their act together.
BAROTSELANDSTAND STAND UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS TO SELF-DETERMINATION AND SELF-RULE, AND PUT YOUR ACT TOGETHER FOR YOUR OWN DERIVARENCE. SAY NO TO THE EDWIN-EDGAR DECEPTION. EDWIN NO LONGER HAS THE MORAL RIGHT NOR LEGITIMISE TO REPRESENT YOU. TELL THE WORLD
by concerned observer
Edwin Lubosi Imwiko has dethroned himself by virtue of the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) position statement on the BA’64 as it appeared in Zambia’s Post News paper edition of Wednesday 22nd October 2015 ( http://barotselandpost.com/images/important_barotse_documents/bre_official_position_on_ba1964.pdf )
By going against the Barotse National Council Resolutions of March 27, 2015, which enshrines the collective will and policy decisions of the People of Barotseland, Mr. Edwin Lubosi Imwiko has in essence dethroned himself from the position of Litunga of Barotseland. Accordingly, his Barotse Royal Establishment Indunas have relinquished their positions by virtue of their undated position statement on the Barotseland Agreement 1964 appended to by Messrs. Lubasi Nalishuwa, Batuke Lisulo and Mowa Zambwe. These individuals no longer have the moral right nor the legitimacy to represent the People of Barotseland for they acted in their individual capacities without the authority of the People. They should henceforth, peacefully vacant their respective offices without any further delay. We respond to their clarification as follows:
1. The principal party to the BA’64 are the people of Barotseland not the BRE, which is an illegal creation of the first President of Zambia, Mr. Kenneth Kaunda, for the purpose of easing the despoliation of the Barotseland nation. The BRE is alien to the governance system of Barotseland. It does also not have power to make unilateral decisions on behalf of the People of Barotseland.
2. The BRE has no standing principles, itself having been created illegally outside the norms of democracy, peace and rule of law and today stands at variance of Barotse traditional values and cultural heritage. It was illegally created after illegally dissolving the democratically elected Katengo Legislative Council of Barotseland.
3. The collective policy decision of the People of Barotseland is already enshrined in the BNC Resolutions of March 27, 2012. The BRE has no mandate from the People to venture into another direction.
4. The People of Barotseland have already decided on an amicable solution on the Barotseland issue through the BNC Resolutions of March 27, 2012, namely self-determination and self-rule for Barotseland. This is issue is no longer open for further discussion but disengagement process.
5. Barotseland is already a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. The application for membership was made by the BRE itself.
6. The embattled Mr. Edwin Lubosi Imwiko and his embattled BRE Indunas have withdrawn from the Barotseland Petition before the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights in Banjul in their individual capacities for they acted without the mandate of the People of Barotseland. These individuals are no longer relevant to the Barotse cause.
7. We remind the embattled BRE Western Province is an illegal creation of the Zambian regime, the correct name of our nation is Barotseland and the People of Barotseland have already decided on the way forward through the BNC Resolutions of March 2012. The Lusaka government has nothing to do with this issue but vacate Barotseland.
8. On the forward motion, the BNC of March 27, 2012 have already made policy decisions and the BRE has neither power nor authority to reverse those Resolutions.
9. Mr. Edgar Changwa Lungu, President of Zambia does not have the moral right nor legitimacy to interfere in Barotseland related issues by virtue of the Zambian regime’s unilaterally abrogation of the BA’64 and the BNC Resolutions of March 27, 2012.
10. The BNFA has already responded to Mr. Edgar Changwa Lungu’s misplaced pronouncements at the fringes of the African Summit where it was clearly pointed out that Zambia no longer has a ‘locus standi’ in the Barotseland issue and devoid of the authority to conduct a referendum in Barotseland as is clearly demonstrated by their actions of running away from the legal processes.
11. Again, the BRE has no mandate to make further consultations on an issue already decided by the BNC Resolutions of March 27, 2012. They are doing this in their individual capacities and, therefore, no longer have the moral right nor the legitimacy to represent the people. They should hence forth immediately vacant their offices.
12. Accordingly, the embattled Mr. Edwin Lubosi Imwiko and his embattled Indunas no longer have the mandate to seek dialogue with the Lusaka government and appeal to ALL the People of Barotseland to rally behind the BNC Resolutions of March 27, 2012, participate in the civil disobedience campaign and forth coming rallies. We further urge those who have not yet appended their signatures to abdication statement to do so.