The discussions were held at Marlborough House in London during the period of 5th to 19th May 1964 that culminated in the signing of the Barotseland Agreement 1964. Here are the personalities that represented their respective countries or organizations;
Rt. Hon. Duncan Sandy's, M. P ( Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations and Colonies )
Mr. Richard Hornby ( Parliamentary under -secretary of state for Commonwealth Relations and the Colonies )
Sir. Seville Garner, K.C.M.G
Sir. Arthur Snelling, K.C.M.G , K.C.V.I
Mr. N. D Watson, C.M.G
Mr. S. P. Whitley
Mr. A. R. Rushford, C.M.G
Mr. C. J. Hooton, C.M.G, M.B.E, Q.C
Mr. G. W. Jameson
Mr. D. R. Wilmont
Governor of Northern Rhodesia
Sir. Evelyn. D. Hone, K.C.M.G, C.V.O, O.B.E
NORTHERN RHODESIA GOVERNMENT DELEGATION
Dr. K. D. Kaunda, Prime Minister - Leader
Mr. M. M. Chona, Minister of Justice
Mr. S. M. Kapwepwe, Minister of Home Affairs
Mr. A. N. L. Wina, Minister of Finance
Mr. E. H. K. Mundenda, Minister of Agriculture
Mr. A. L. Milner, parliamentary secretary to the Prime minister
Mr. K. K. Chivunga, parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Health
Mr. H. M. Kikombe, minister of the Legislative Assembly
BAROTSE NATIVE GOVERNMENT DELEGATION
Sir. Mwanawina III, K.B.E- Leader
Mr. Imenda Sibandi, the Hon. Ngambela of Barotseland
Mr. Ndangwa. H. Noyooh, elected Councilor
Mr. Kawana Mulemwa, elected Councilor
AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS DELEGATION
Mr. Harry. M. Nkumbula- Leader
Mr. Mufaya Mumbuna
Mr. B. L. Lombe
NATIONAL PROGRESSIVE PARTY DELEGATION
Mr. H. J. Robert - Leader
Mr. C. D. Burney
Mr. H. R. E. Mitchley
NORTHERN RHODESIA GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
Mr. W. M. McCall, Q. C
Mr. L. Bean, M. B. E
Mr. A. E. Lewis
Mr. I. M. Eldridge
Mr. D. M. Tallmadge
Mr. R. C. Andrew
Mr. A. M. Hinds
Mr. A. J. R. Noel
Mr. F. Bellows
Mr. J. T. A. Howard- Drake
Mr. C. D. W. Adams
Mr. A. M. Fox
Mr. T. A. A. Hart
Mr. E. D. Davies
Mr. R. C. Kite
Mr. N. O. Rampton
Having concluded the deliberations, the British government, being the convener produced the following statement signifying the end of the discussion:-
" The Secretary of state, in conclusion, informed the Conference that, having regard to the settlement of constitutional matters reached at the Conference and to the separate agreement reached outside the conference between the Northern Rhodesia government and the Litunga of Barotseland in the future position of Barotseland within Northern Rhodesia, the British government has decided that Northern Rhodesia, under the name of the Republic of Zambia, should become independent on 24th October, 1964."
Besides, the Prime Minister had undertaken to respect the Barotseland Agreement and stated as follows:-
" The Prime minister of Northern Rhodesia undertook on behalf of his Government, that the Agreement would be reaffirmed by the Government of Northern Rhodesia at Independence."
This shows that the BA64 was well discussed and adequately prepared and it was timely set that any disruption of it was apt to create problems which Zambia is faced to day as the consequences of abrogating it.
Compiled by Saleya Kwalombota
Information just received indicates that detained Linyungandambo leader and Barotseland Administrator General Afumba Mombotwa together with his co-accused’s cases have been transferred from Mungu to Lusaka. As such the three will be appearing before Lusaka magistrate tomorrow the 22nd of December 2014 most likely in the morning at 09:00hrs.
The information further state that Mungu police, for some explained reasons, have cleared the transfer of the case in which the trio have been charged with both sedition and treason felonies from Mungu to Lusaka.
Meanwhile, the three have been detained at Mwembeshi Maximum prison after they had secretly been transferred from Kambule remand prison in Mungu to this maximum facility in Mumbwa.
Afumba Mombotwa who took oath of office on the 14th August 2013 to head the Barotseland interim government as Administrator general was arrested on Friday, 05th December 2014 together with two other officials of his government after they had visited senior chief Inyambo Yeta in Sisheke region of Barotseland.
More updates on this story as it develop.
I would like to shed light on the genesis of the Nkoya tribal group of Barotseland, in order to disprove the innuendo being peddled that certain tribal extractions are under subjugation of other tribal groupings in Barotseland. This incorrect assumption is being engineered by political stewards who are our brothers and sisters from the group that professes to be of the "Nkoya" extraction which claims not to belong to Lozi nationality. They have argued that Nkoyas are not part of the Barotse-speaking people. According to a Nkoya traditionalist, Robert Litungu.
It is better to explain this issue because the matter is being exaggerated and fuelled by forces outside Barotseland who are Zambian politicians aiming at bringing division among the diversified ethnic groupings of Royal Barotseland Kingdom. It is therefore, proper to discuss this matter honestly in order to remove the unnecessary innuendoes on this argument. To start with, let us examine who the "Nkoya" people are?
It is stated that the "Nkoya" people are descendants of Sioka Nalinanga and that this argument is not carried forward beyond this level.
The fact is that the name "Nkoya" was adulterated from the name Ñoya who was a sister to Mwambwa and both of them being daughters of Noshaa.
On the occasion of the death of their mother while residing along the "Loi" River in the present day Congo DR, the first dispersal took place which saw the moving away of notables like Inyunyi, Mbukushu, Yutoya, Ngambwa, Imanga, Kayawe, Nyimbwamoyo, Mbakala and many, many more. The dispersal was ignited by the desire to change leadership from women to men and that there were problems of disposal of the chattels of the departed leader (their mother Noshaa). Notables, among others, like Isimwaa had resisted the idea to replace the leadership from women to men. Following this episode, the first group went away leaving others including Mwambwa and Ñoya with their children.
After sometime, the group decided to take a similar movement which brought them to the present settlement of "Ului" which was derived from the name "Loi" River in present day Congo DR.
While on the trek, incidentally, they found or stumbled on Yutoya while others had gone in different directions, which were later located. During this time, Mwambwa was the leader who was supported by Ñoya and the other people. Ñoya had daughters by the names of Nalinanga and Nolea who latter had sons by the name of Sioka and Imatakwana who later became famous and got known as Mange.
Sioka, being a nobleman, was given responsibility to look after the royal regalia during the reign of Mwambwa. In the meantime, Ñoya had moved to settle in a land which became known as Ñoya which is sandwiched between Mwito under Induna (chief) Mayankwa in Lukulu district, Luambuwa under Induna (chief) Kabilamwandi in Kaoma district while the other side is in the area of Sikusi under Induna ( chief) Iloke and Luena / Sitoya under Induna (chief) Sibetta in Mungu district respectively.
The land of Ñoya is eulogized by people who truly confess to be members of the Ñoya stock. As to the position of Sioka, true members of the Ñoya stock, will say:-
" Ami Kankoya ka Shihoka Nalinanga, bantu ba tula mikabo baka kulya nshima kuanga. Ba Mununga, ba nungile mpanda mwilu", meaning, “I am a Nkoya of the line of Sioka Nalinanga, one who eats nshima having climbed a tree".
The differences between the Nkoya people and the rest of Barotse tribes does not arise and is a non issue which should not be politicized. The insinuation of this matter is too dangerous to Barotseland and Zambia as a whole. The BRE is more democratic than the Zambian government. The Zambian government is democratic in theory, but for the past 50 years has marginalized and abused power. Kenneth Kaunda Zambia's first president was a semi-dictator under one party participatory democracy, whatever that means?
Before Zambia’s independence in 1964, the people in Barotseland were voting their Legislative council in power, representing their constituencies. The Litunga does not rule by decree or creed. There is no force.
Also note that the Litunga does not speak. This is how decisions are made and not by the Litunga.
There are three chambers in the Kuta, Bana Ba Malena, Commoners and the Indunas. This is how Barotse Royal Establishment is composed of. Also it is good to note that all tribes in Barotseland are in the governance systems of Barotse Royal Authority (BRA) or Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) according to Zambian imposition.
The BRA is not intending to go back to the days of slavery and enslave Nkoyas.
As a matter of fact, Litunga was the first African leader to end slavery. The name Litunga ‘Mulambwa’ signifies people should stop slavery but buy and sell dogs instead. This was way back in 1830. Lewanika upheld anti- slavery tendencies.
To add a bit on the relationship between the Luyis’ and the Nkoyas’, Mankoya/Kaoma had also been invaded and subjected to Makololo rule and was only reclaimed by the Luyi impis who wiped out the Makololos.
Makololos are the ones who imposed Lozi language across Barotseland and Mankoya had equally been headed by the Makololo, just like all other ethnic groupings of Barotseland.
This, therefore, should surely explain the connection between Mankoya and the rest of the people of Barotseland. As explained from the historical narration, the Nkoya people are from the root of Ñoya who was a blood sister to Mwambwa, therefore, the children of them are relatives of the same stock.
Finally, the Nkoya people should not violate historical and ethical codes of professional decency, thereby, being untrue to the History of their genesis in Barotseland by allowing themselves to be used by politicians with historical theory mixed with errors and polluted with political propaganda.
Tukongote Litunga Ni lyetu.
By Saleya Kwalombota
DOES ZAMBIANS UNDERSTAND THE MAGNITUDE OF THEIR ACTIONS?
On the night of 19th December 2014, Zambian’s Minister of Defence and Justices who is also the PF Presidential candidate in the forth coming Zambian Presidential By-Election EDGAR CHAGWA LUNGU sent a team to Mwembeshi Maximum Prison comprising Zambian Army and OP personnel to specifically go and kidnap His Excellence Rt. Honorable Afumba Mombotwa to an unknown destination. He instructed them to say, “When the Prison Officer In-Charge asks you tell him that you are transferring him to Lusaka where He will be released from.”
Upon arriving at Mwembeshi, they told the Prisons Guard on duty who later informed his superior. The Officer told this team of criminals and kidnappers that in his capacity he has not received such an instruction from the Acting President Dr. Guy Scott. He further told them that unless they showed him a presidential command, he would not allow them. The team leader then called Lungu and told him about the development, and he Lungu emphatically told them that their instruction was to pick Rt. Honorable Afumba Mombotwa and they should do just that.
Amidst this argument, the Officer In-Charge then decided to call state house and speak to Dr. Scott. He told him about the move which Edgar Lungu was doing to implicate him as the President. And in response to it, Dr. Scott told the Officer In-Charge that He in his capacity as Acting President did not give such a command or directive and who ever sent those people was doing so to undermine his authority. He went on to say that they should not allow anyone to kidnap any of the trio out of Mwembeshi prison to either Lusaka or any other unknown place.
Zambia’s Acting President further said those people (Afumba and his co-accused) have not committed any crime and if anything, they should be taken back to Mungu closer to their relatives, stating that even the next court session should be held in Mungu and not Lusaka. He further said that who ever sent this team has evil plans against these people and He Dr. Scott will not allow such a thing to happen under his watch. And when the officer In-Charge told them what the Acting President’s orders were, they all left. There were two trucks full of soldiers, a land cruiser and another vehicle.
The questions: Is Edgar Chagwa Lungu a president already or not? Does he really understand what is at stake for him and the rest of Zambians as far as this case is concerned? What Zambians should expect out of such individuals is deadly and should anything happen to His Excellence Rt. Hon.Afumba Mombotwa, Rt Hon. Likando Pelekelo or Rt. Hon. Sylvester Kalima, Zambia will experience the full wrath of Malozi. Barotseland knows what Zambia is capable of as they have already seen Zambia did to the Former Ngambela and gallant man Hon. Maxwell Mututwa, the Muyangana Family and many others while they were in detention in different Zambian jails. However, Barotseland will ensure that Zambia gets the full measure of their actions because all the fallen Barotseland heroes deaths on Zambia’s conscience.
Barotseland also wishes to advise Edgar Lungu and his fellow criminals that they are playing with fire, stating that if a dog is fond of stealing eggs, the only way to stop it is to break a boiled hot egg in its mouth.
Therefore, Barotseland wish to tell and warn Zambia that they are watching closely and soon, the gates of hell will be opening to some to those erring.
A Barotseland Intelligence Report.
The European Parliament has adopted a resolution supporting Palestinian statehood in principle. The compromise motion did not back immediate recognition of a Palestinian state.
After discussions between the main parties in the European Parliament, a watered down motion on Palestine was carried by a two-thirds majority on Wednesday.
"(The European Parliament) supports in principle recognition of Palestinian statehood and the two-state solution, and believes these should go hand in hand with the development of peace talks, which should be advanced," the motion read.
The largest group in the parliament, the center-right European People's Party and the fourth largest group, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, said recognition should only form part of a negotiated agreement with Israel.
Social Democrat, left-wing and Green members of the European Parliament had put forward motions for a symbolic vote on Wednesday. They called on the EU's 28 members to recognize Palestine statehood immediately, without conditions.
In October, Sweden voted to recognize Palestine. There were non-binding votes in favor of recognizing Palestine in Britain, France and Ireland in the following weeks as lawmakers expressed impatience with the stalled peace process in the Middle East. The last, US-sponsored, talks collapsed in April. Since then Israel has built settlements on land Palestinians claim for their future state.
Later on Wednesday, Jordan is to submit a draft resolution to the UN Security Council on behalf of the Palestinians on ending the Israeli occupation of the West Bank.
Separately, an EU court on Wednesday ruled that Palestinian group Hamas should be removed from the EU's list of terrorist organisations.
jm/jr (Reuters, AFP)
It was with deep shock and pain that we learned of the passing of yet another hero of the struggle for the total independence of Barotseland, Comrade Muyangana Muyangana. He was, in every sense, a brave warrior who never retreated in battle. He kept on believing in our cause and never allowed even sickness to change his conviction. In him was a man who truly lived for something he was ready to die for. This is sad indeed.
When we finally arrive at our destination and are reclining in our reed fenced compounds; when the history of our struggle is told, it will not be complete without acknowledging the sacrificial contributions the Muyanganas made. We would not be where we are with Barotseland’s independence today had it not been for the brave leadership of Mr. and Mrs. Muyangana. And with all honesty and humility, there are few among Barotse activists who can truthfully tell the Muyangana story better than the writer who lived and worked with them from the very beginning of their activism. In them, we lost a man and a woman who sacrificed themselves, their family and all their resources for the realization of Barotseland’s statehood.
The Muyanganas joined the struggle at a point when hope was almost gone. This was after all Barotseland Freedom Movement (BFM) activists had decided to call it quits following the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE)’s attempt to under-mine our objective of liberating Barotseland. Much to our displeasure, the Establishment had directed us to “work with” some Lusaka based activists who had been secretly advocating for the restoration of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 in an exclusive manner and only turned to the masses when signatures for futile petitions to the Zambian authorities were needed. It was during this period that the writer took it upon himself to go around Mungu, teaching and sensitizing those he could about the BA’64 and the implications of its unjust termination by the Zambian government in 1969. Among those who showed keen interest in the issue was the late Mrs. Grace Muyangana who in turn quickly informed her equally keen husband. Through this couple, BFM was able to re-group and introduce the struggle to the masses in a broader sense. We always believed that the Barotseland issue belonged to all Lozi people regardless of their position in society; the rich, the poor, the illiterate and the so called literate, the young and the old. It was not long before there were run-ins with the unjust Zambian police who initially refused to grant us permission to peacefully march to Limulunga Royal Village on 9th August 2010 and furthermore declined our request to hold a consultative meeting at Blue Gums Ground on 23rd October 2010. This was after the defunct National Constitutional Conference (NCC) had thrown out Barotseland’s submission to the then proposed Zambian constitution. Linyungandambo also came up around the same time and together we found common working ground. Our collaboration led to the unfortunate 14th January 2011 massacres and unjustified arrests. During 2010 and 2011, Mr. Muyangana suffered two harsh arrests while his wife endured one. At one point Grace had to go and live in the bush with her children, just to avoid arrest.
When Zambian general elections came about in September 2011, we saw that as an opportunity to get back at our persecutors. Although we could not entirely trust the Patriotic Front, we had, however, hoped that it wins the polls. The plan worked well in that we eventually found some much needed respite from Zambian attacks and further gained irreversible and priceless advances in our struggle. These were the unconditional release of all Barotse activists, the Roger Chongwe Commission of Inquiry (whose report remains a well kept secret), the historic Zambian State House meeting with the late President Michael Sata on 28th December 2011 which essentially resulted into the much more historical Barotse National Council Conference of March 2012. This was where Barotseland was unanimously declared independent of Zambia; a position that cannot and shall not be reversed.
There is no way how we could have got this far without the Muyanganas, given pre-BFM/Linyungandambo days when a few Lusaka individuals masquerading as Barotse activists schemed an exclusive elitist agenda that kept the so-called “semi-illiterates” out. Unlike these Lusaka boot-licker activists, the Muyanganas had bravely and uncompromisingly subscribed to the immediate independence; an ideal they both lived and died for. They are survived by children and grand children who now are the responsibility of all freedom believing Lozi people and friends of our struggle the world over.
Our sorrow is deep indeed. We never knew that after traveling for so long and so far together we would, today, have comrades of the Muyanganas’ and Mwangelwa’s caliber missing among us. However, we are assured of the fact that no position is left vacant in our ranks. Every spear that falls to the ground is quickly picked up by new and more zealous activists. Not even Honorable Afumba Mombotwa’s spear is buried in the sand. Our day of celebration is near. We may not get there together. But as a people and as a nation, we shall soon get there with joy. When we finally get home, we shall remember all our fallen heroes who fell in battle for our independence.
May their souls rest in eternal peace.
Shuwanga Shuwanga, BFM
IN WHAT CONTEXT IS BAROTSELAND A STATE?
I would like to clarify the innuendo being peddled by enemies of Barotseland with intent to corrupt the less enlightened citizens in regard to the Act of INDEPENDENCE DECLARATION, the method Barotseland followed. In the first place the route of independence declaration is legal and the independence claim born out of it is legitimate. Barotseland is not the only country to have taken such a route but countries like USA, Kosovo, etc did the same.
According to the Montevideo Convention on Statehood of 1933 sets out several requirements for Statehood. The Convention, and prevailing law at the time, viewed States as a kind of sui generis legal entity operating and existing under its own authority and power.
Article 3 provides, the political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states. Even before recognition the state has the right to defend its integrity and independence, to provide for its conservation and prosperity, and consequently to organize itself as it sees fit, to legislate upon its interests, administer its services, and to define the jurisdiction and competence of its courts.
Barotseland has done exactly the same , after the historic and famous 2012 BNC unilateral Declaration of independence, Barotseland did not go to sleep but organized herself by putting up government structures and formulating of Acts which were destroyed by Zambian regime of Kaunda in 1965.
The Montevideo Convention article 6 then goes on to state,
"The recognition of a state merely signifies that the state which recognizes it accepts the personality of the other with all the rights and duties determined by international law. Recognition is unconditional and irrevocable."
From stand point of international law Barotseland is a State and I know for most of Zambians it is news. I sympathize with them because Kaunda managed to brain wash them in his school of jungle thoughts still believed by elite Zambians.
Appeal to all Lozis , don't fail to assert to the repossession of your rightful property or ownership. Understand that by the act of declaration you have become a state and have right to legislate in your declared independent territory. Remember, it’s not Zambia to give Barotseland sovereignty but sovereignty is with the people of Barotseland and this is what the international law stipulates. What is remaining is to accomplish the recognition of an entity as a State in the international community to be able to function within the bigger family, that makes it so. One simple reason for this might be that States serve a regulatory function in the world. Their function is to administer a portion of the planet where people live.
The process of disengagement is another area that requires the input of international community, for implementation and supervision of the process. This is the task our transitional government is working on day and night to win diplomatic recognition of which I believe is not far from now. The recognition will mean that Barotseland will be able get support both military and economic while develop her own strength to resist international threat.
Tukongote Litunga Ni lyetu
By Saleya Kwalombota
Prince Mwangelwa Mbikusikuta-Lewanika who died on the 8th of December 2014 was put to rest on Friday the 12th of December 2014 in Limulunga Royal village at the Royal grave yard, next to his elder brother Dr. Mwananyanda Mbikusita Lewanika who died on 4th October earlier this year. The funeral gathering has been held at Mukola family place.
Prince Mwangelwa, a humble man full of life, and a very intelligent prince in the Mbikusita Lewanika royal house-hold was also a member of the Barotseland Freedom Movement (BFM), a movement spear-heading the independence of Barotseland under the banner of Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA).
Mwana mulena Mwangelwa Mbikusita Lewanika died a short while after the Mbikusita Lewanika royal family was yet to settle down from a loss of another gallant son and Prince Dr. Mwananyanda Mbikusita Lewanika who died on 4th October earlier in the year.
Meanwhile another gallant Barotseland warrior Muyangana Muyangana has died.
Commenting on his death, Barotseland compatriot and friend Shaudi Mungandi Muwina Mungandi had this to say,
“I was enjoying my Sabbath in a relaxing mood after a go-come trip to Mongu yesterday to pay my last respect to a truly great pal Mwangelwa Mbikusita-Lewanika. That is until I got news that another compatriot in the struggle has just lost the battle for life. Muyangana Muyangana has passed away! The question that begs an answer is, how many more warriors will fall on the battlefield before we can shout ‘Free at last, free at last! Thank God almighty we are free at last.’ The answer my friends is blowing in the wind, the answer is blowing in the wind. The answer my friends is living in all men, the answer is living in all men.”
The former Barotse Freedom Movement national coordinator died Friday evening at around 22:30hrs, in Mungu at Lewanika General Hospital after battling on life support for the 2 days, according to Mungu based BBN.
Just after been released from jail in 2011 under Zambia’s ruling MMD of Rupiah Bwezani Banda’s reign, Mr. Muyangana became a very close friend of Zambia’s late president Michael Sata who he helped to campaign and win presidential elections, as they went round Barotseland.
“His wife, Grace Muyangana was the first one to die early this year and today his beloved husband follows,” reports BBN.
Barotseland has truly lost gallant warriors in the two fallen sons of the soil.