Editor General, Barotseland Post
Self determination is no respecter of persons. It leaves no stone unturned. Royal or commoner, it comes with a challenge, and this is the challenge that the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) and all of us are meeting face to face today. By the way, whose face is it putting on?
Therefore, BRE has no option other than making itself relevant to this unstoppable process of self determination. Doing otherwise will mean BRE will join other royal foundations who never liberated their territories. This happened when the African freedom fighters realized early that their kings / chiefs were turned into colonialist agents, and so they opted to move on to independence without them. Thus today there are very few countries headed by kings or queens, instead the commoners rule these states, and kings/chiefs are now monumental citizens needing governments to recognize and gazette them.
Similarly, Barotseland's self determination is not wholly dependent on BRE, but rather we the people. However, this process can be accelerated exponentially with the full participation of the BRE and the Litungaship. BUT it will not stop (without them.) It may just be delayed by key stake holders. Otherwise the process thus far is impressive. The mood in the people of Barotseland is a key indicator that we are going home.
It may not be today or tomorrow but believe me, we as a people, even in our commonness, will get there.
This period, therefore, gives an opportunity for BRE to provide their age old leadership and launch another constitutional monarchy in Africa like Lesotho. I have no doubt in my mind that BRE is definitely in touch with the realities on the ground and are definitely doing the best for Barotseland. They may not beat their own drums of praise but suffice to say that this activism we are enjoying today is evidence of their able patriotic leadership.
Long Live HRM Litunga Lubosi Imwiko II, Long Live Royal Establishment, Long Live Royal Barotseland Government. Long Live all Activist movements, Long Live you and me, Barotseland nationals.
Please publish this on our popular front, the Barotseland Post.
As usual I periodically take time to remind each one of us most importantly we the youths. We need to take part in making sure we are not enslaved by Zambia. We need new tactics, new ideas and new thinking! This can only be done by us, Fresh thinkers.
I read in the media that President Lungu wants to engage BRE to chat Barotseland Agreement,
This is wrong and unacceptable. BRE should redeem itself by engaging the Barotse populace, I am reminding you that Zambia do have a standing Army aimed at annihilation; this Army is stationed in the entire Barotseland with many in our Nations' Capital, Mongu. They want to wipe us out should we voice out, again you have a chance and you want to waste it! We must tell President Lungu that everyone wants out!
To the youths of Barotseland, secession is our hope. Some Zambians say we can't secede, Isn't that like telling your wife she can't divorce you? We are not equal partners. Our neighbors have an agenda of perpetual enslaving us. 'We are equal before the Creator and it’s so insulting to be downtrodden by fellow individuals.' Arise Barotse! Barotseland is our Land and we know, no other, lets brave on. Aluta!
To the BRE, Its common knowledge around Barotseland that everyone wants to leave this treacherous union. Since 1969 we have cried foul to have the BA 64 recognized. My plea is be true to yourselves and to your children, we together with you the BRE have been going down this road for far too long; we are grown ups and you the BRE can no longer fix this, your people (including Nkoyas and Mbundas) want to leave this treacherous union no one wants to stay with Zambia. Of course I know some would want to cash in on us but please, look at the bigger picture.
My advice is to include all the activist organizations: Moreba, the Linyungandambo - Government In-Waiting, Mr. Sinyinda and his BNFA, The Barotse Patriotic Front under Mr. Mutangelwa, and other senior Citizens. I myself support the numerous organizations because I fear that because of the love of money, a few will compromise our resolve of leaving Zambia for a few pieces of silver. I know some people are getting wealthy by falsely representing us and getting resources from the colonizer! This is shameful. We do not want to be in misery at your expense. Itaba maswabisa kuli munge kapene nikusinya taba nikulibala bana bamba bao batamilwe ni bao seba pumuzi kataba ye!!!
To the Zambian Government, I am ashamed that you forcibly want us to stay when you are the same people through your Nyasa brother, Mr. Kaunda that abrogated our Union Treaty. You say the treaty doesn't provide for secession. Does it provide for abrogation you? We are not claiming any land outside our borders; we are claiming our land not claiming peoples. If there are people who are dissatisfied then better they move to those areas considered friendly because as far as me and others are concerned Barotseland is a Lozi Nation to which all these peoples fall and are equally LOZIs as long as they are within the borders of Barotseland.
To President Lungu, kindly release all our Political detainees, call back your standing army currently in Barotseland and then sit at the table, and chat the way forward. Barotseland shall be free.
The author is an Agriculture Consultant in Huambo, Angola. Holds a Bsc in Agriculture from the Wageningen University, The Royal Netherlands.
I would like to dwell on Kaunda's speech of 26th August 1969 to the nation dubbed "I WISH TO INFORM THE NATION", where his unquenchable desire to "fix" the people of Barotseland was manifested two years after the independence. It is disheartening to note the level of visible hatred the Kaunda regime made against the people of Barotseland as a whole. The incidences of hatred are traced way back before independence of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) in 1964 and continued to date.
IN REFERENCE TO 1969 BAROTSELAND REFERENDUM
The people of Barotseland had utterly rejected the maneuvers under the referendum as indicated below but Kaunda's deceptive manners could not honor the true figures but instead opted to manipulation of the outcome
"All these reforms which have had been announced affecting the political, economic and social fields are possible now, thanks to the referendum, thanks to the support which the people in this nation gave me, the party and government." END OF QUOTE.
It was an aberration in the act of referendum for Kaunda to have cheated that the people of Barotseland had voted in favor of government reforms to have control over Barotseland natural resources and possessions, when in fact the results indicated that they had given an unequivocal NO vote representing 62.08 percent against a paltry YES vote representing 37.92 percent.
UNDER CUSTOM AND WILDLIFE
"Hitherto, under custom, wildlife and indeed fish, in certain areas have belonged to individuals, Indunas and other traditional leaders." END OF QUOTE.
It must be emphasized that these insinuations were directed at the leadership and the people of Barotseland because this is the only area where people own natural resources such as "Masa" (Weirs), "Mishitu" (thickness of forests), "Likuma" (thickness of papyrus), "Masimu" (gardens) etc, etc. This position was acknowledged by Professor Max Gluckman (commonly known as Makapweka) who had stated that the Lozis are the only people, in the world, who own and know the extent of their land without the aid of beacons.
IN REFERENCE TO BAROTSE NATIONAL SCHOOL
In his, insatiable, appetite to destroy the property of the people of Barotseland by removing all the known vestiges and in reference to the Barotse National School this is what he said;
“The Barotse National School is to assume another name, for we cannot have a nation within a nation.” END OF QUOTE.
Let it be explained that this school (now known as Kambule secondary school) was built from the money arising out of 10 percent of the collections which was committed to the development of education in Barotseland at the signing of treaties in the 1880s.
IN REFERENCE TO BAROTSELAND NAME
In his misguided outbursts and in reference to Barotseland he had this to say;
"Barotse province is now to become Western province. The present western province, which bears no relationship to the direction, will become copperbelt province." END OF QUOTE.
Let it be explained that the purpose of renaming Barotseland and changing her status was intended to down grade her to levels of other provinces in order to justify the denial of her proper share of entitlement which was accruable as a result of being a "territory" like her equal partner, the “territory" of Northern Rhodesia.
In his endeavors to disturb the affairs of Barotseland, had this to say with respect to “chiefs",
“I know, for example, that certain chiefs in the Western province have been performing the functions of chiefs without Government recognition. I wish to announce that I am making investigations ..." END OF QUOTE.
It is surprising that former dictator president Kenneth Kaunda could infer that there were only six chiefs in Barotseland when they are more than 100 silalo indunas or "chiefs" as they are referred to within Zambian terminology. These are responsible for certification of documents for the purpose of obtaining national registration cards. Personalities such as the Litunga, royal highnesses the Litunga la- mboela, Mboanjikana, Prince Inyambo, prince Anananga, Amukena and Lukama are not chiefs in Barotseland context but are sitting princes and princesses while His Royal Majesty, the Litunga is King heading the kingdom. This is why you will never see the aforementioned reflected on the national registration cards as required under the Zambian National Registration Act because they are princes and princesses under the Kingdom and territory of Barotseland, and not chiefs in Zambia. So, while you may find a Zambian national registration card (NRC) holder with chief Mpezeni, chief Mwatakazembe or Chief Chitimukulu, for example, you will never find any Zambian NRC holder with Chief Inyambo, Amukena, Anangana, Lukama (let alone 'Chief' Litunga).
The Barotseland equivalent to the Zambian chiefs are the Silalo Indunas, who equally perform the functions which other "chiefs" do in parts of Zambia, although, unfortunately, they are not catered for in terms of benefits such as enumerations, houses (palaces), motor vehicles etc, like the chiefs in other provinces of Zambia.
In conclusion, the people of Barotseland should come to the realization that this discriminatory tendency of the Zambian government against Barotse nation was the backbone of Kenneth Kaunda's (Zambia's first president) treacherous acts that led to the abrogation of BA64 (an honorary and binding treaty), and his atrocities, arrests and detentions of over 200 Barotzish that were to follow from 1969 to this day!
This, therefore, calls for serious consideration to redeem ourselves from these conditions of slavery, servitude and bondage that we find ourselves in today. The people of Barotseland should accept the reality that the Zambian government hold the worst consideration of Barotseland as a country and worse still, considers the Lozi nationals as subservient citizens of Zambia.
The struggle to liberate Barotseland is the only valuable spirit that encompasses all, therefore, a journey started is a journey completed, Barotseland must be free.
Tukongote Litunga Ni lyetu
By Saleya Kwalombota
MR. EDGAR C. LUNGU
PRESIDENT OF ZAMBIA
Re: DIALOGUE OVER BA’64 A MOCKERY AND NOT WELCOME
Reference is here made to the statement captioned above that indeed if you want to continue mocking people (Zambians), by promising or giving them false hope that there can be a form of dialogue over the defunct Barotseland Agreement 1964, we, the Barotseland National Youth League (BNYL), as an organization representing the voices and views of the youth all over Barotseland and also those in the Diaspora, and the people of Barotseland, do wish to caution you that you are not welcome in Royal Barotseland with such a mission and several reasons can be attributed to our stance.
1. Royal Barotseland Kingdom signed this agreement and went into partnership with Northern Rhodesia in good faith but your side had evil intentions of reaping us of our resources. But before the signing took place, The Barotseland National Council was called upon to decide whether to go ahead into this partnership or not. And the people voted to join into a unitary state of Zambia not as a province but as a state. This means Zambia was made by and out of two states namely Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia
2. The BA’64 is no longer a document of any form of interest, neither is it a document that exists in our language as Barotzish. This document was not observed by you Zambians or should we refer to you as Northern Rhodesia. A few months after the agreement was signed, your part embarked on a series of activities that the beginning of breaches, repudiation and finally the abrogation in 1969.
3. This agreement was abrogated by one part without consulting the other parties which took part in the signing of this agreement or treaty. This means that, one felt uncomfortable to continue being in this agreement and ultimately, they wanted out. Your government in the Kaunda regime decided to opt out by breaking the law of contracts and also the international law, out of which your constitution is born.
4. In international law, there is an act which is referred to as the Vienna Convention of 1969, article 27 which talks about how internal laws must not interfere or infringe on the international treaties. It states, “that a party may not invoke the provision of the internal law to justify its failure to perform a treaty.” Therefore, Zambia did just exactly what this principle is against few months after signing it. This is evident enough of how Zambia totally disregard principles of law
5. In all fairness and also by the Law of contracts, if one part breaches the contract, agreement or treaty, then both parties will revert to their original status. In this case, Barotseland made several attempts to try and resolve this issue but Zambia chose to either arrest, intimidate and kill who ever came forward. We wish, therefore, to tell you that finally, Barotseland has taken the right path of law, to accept the abrogation of the agreement. This is evident in the Barotseland National Council of 26 – 27 March, 2012. Just like we alluded to earlier on that it was by BNC that we accepted to sign the agreement, so it has happened that by the same BNC, we have accepted the abrogation of the agreement by your side, and reverted back to our original status. Each one for himself and God for us all.
6. It does not make sense for anyone to talk about the defunct BA’64 now instead of talking about the peaceful disengagement. In your own words, when you were in Ethiopia, made mention that you will give the people of Barotseland a referendum. But, sir, who told you that we need a referendum to actualize our independence? We never went into Zambia by a referendum and will certainly come out of it without one.
7. We are made to believe that you being a lawyer by profession, you do understand that it is not the oppressor who imposes a referendum but the oppressed, if they so chose to.
8. Fortunately, we don’t claim tribes but we claim a territory; in this case, as you sited the Nkoyas or should we rightly say 'some' Nkoyas, or indeed anyone else, who feel they can’t stay in Barotseland are at liberty to pack up and go to a country of their own choice. Barotseland will still remain Barotseland. Barotseland has existed ever since the 1300s with diverse ethnic groupings which lived in harmony under the governance of the Monarch, and she shall continue to do so with or without those few opposed to her independence.
9. The resolutions of popular 2012 BNC did give overall authority and powers to the Government of Barotseland to actualize the peaceful disengagement with Zambia, not BRE or some few individuals. But the will of the people is for the Transitional government to take up the mantle and deliver on their aspirations. Therefore, be advised and warned at the same time that there is no any other institution, organisation or individual who can speak on behalf of the people of Barotseland except those in the Barotseland government.
10. We are very much well informed that you made a call to one Clement W. Sinyinda for him to come over to Lusaka and a few others so that you can chart a way forward. Not just that but you also invited two Indunas to come to state house for the same cause and these Indunas are:
- Kufuna Siisi – Induna Kalonga and Acting Ngambela
- Lubasi Nalishua – Induna Katema
11. Even though their trip was done discretely, everything was brought to our attention. We wish to tell you that, you are just wasting your time, energy and national resources because none of these you invited can change the resolution made by the supreme law making organ of our land. If Zambians were accountable enough, they will question over their resources.
12. We wish to also advise you to release all the people arrested over this issue. These are His Excellence Rt. Hon. Afumba Mombotwa, Administrator General of the Royal Barotseland Government and the other four members of His cabinet namely; Likando Pelekelo, Silvester Kalima, Mubita Waluka and Masiye Masiyaleti. The Executive members of BNYL namely; Muziba Borris, Nayoto Mwenda and Sikwibele Wasilota. These gallant men have committed no crime at all but you have kept mute from your inauguration to date. We hope you are not going to follow what your predecessor did because you are a Lawyer by profession, and we expect you to respect the rule of law in totality.
13. Finally be aware that if there is anything you want to do with regard to Barotseland, remember to go through our lawyers. We are aware that you have received a letter from them, which is a notice of intent to sue, and that the case is being taken to the ICJ for further seeking of natural justice. We expect you to follow, as they advised you to, on any matters pertaining to Barotseland.
BAROTSELAND NATIONAL YOUTH LEAGUE EXECUTIVE
Cc: His Majesty King Lubosi Imwiko II
Cc: Office of the Administrator General
Cc: United Nations
Cc: Common Wealth
Cc: African Union
Cc: All Embassies Accredited to Zambia
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS OF YOUR LEGALLY ACQUIRED WIFE, HUSBAND, CHILDREN or FAMILY, whether they be Zambian, Barotzish or any other nationality
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS OF YOUR LEGALLY ACQUIRED PROPERTY in Zambia, Barotseland or anywhere else in the world
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS OF YOUR LEGALLY ACQUIRED JOB in Zambia, Barotseland or anywhere else in the world
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean YOU WILL BE CHASED from Zambia, Barotseland or any other country of the world
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS OF YOUR TRIBE or ETHNICITY whether that tribe is Zambian or Barotzish and regardless of where you chose to live
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean YOU WILL BE FORCED TO CHOOSE to be Zambian or Barotzish. CITIZENSHIP will be by choice and in accordance with prevailing Citizenship Laws. A Lozi can choose to be or remain Zambian and a Zambian can choose to apply for Barotseland citizenship and be a LOZI or BAROTZISH. In case of DUAL NATIONALITY, one will be able to choose to be a citizen of both Barotseland and Zambia
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean WAR and BLOODSHED between Zambia and Barotseland
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS OF FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT between Barotseland and Zambia
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean LOSS of TRADE and COMMERCE between Barotseland and Zambia
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean No more MUNGU or NAKONDE rice
- Barotseland Independence Does not mean...Please, add to this list all your fears?
There are LAWS that govern and will continue to govern Barotseland just like there are LAWS that govern Zambia. THIS CHANGE WILL BE GRADUAL rather than INSTANTANEOUS. Time will be given for everyone to make decisions about what to do with their life, families, businesses and property.
So RELAX as we look forward to a HEALTHY and HARMONIOUS bilateral relationship between Barotseland and Zambia. After all Barotseland and Zambia will be neighbors forever, hopefully.
Having looked at the background of the Barotseland Agreement and the origin of Zambia as a unitary state in the last article, we will now look at the thorny issue of the boundary of Barotseland and whether there is need for a referendum.
We will also sample some quotations from the man who created the problem before us, Kenneth David Kaunda.
The boundary of Barotseland proper has always been maintained by the Barotse though the boundaries of Barotseland North-Western Rhodesia kept changing through the numerous Orders-In-Council.
The boundary currently under claim is that of Barotseland proper as it was from 1900 to 1947 without taking areas that were regarded as her subject or dependent territories into consideration. (See Th Barotseland Boundary Case of 1903-1906 [Britain Vs Portugal] under the arbitration of Italy here: http://barotsepost.com/images/important_barotse_documents/The-Barotseland-Boundary-Case.pdf) or on the United Nations website: http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_XI/59-69.pdf
The eastern boundaries stretch from Itezhi-Tezhi to the confluence of the river Chiababi with the Zambezi (Longitude26 degrees East) (East of Livingstone) and northern boundaries shall stretch from the confluence of Lufupa river with the Kafue river, westward, to the Lungwebungu river (Longitude 22 degrees East) The boundary on the west shall stretch from Lungwebungu river (latitude 13 degrees 28 minutes south) then southward to the Cuando river, down to the confluence of the Cuando with the Luena river extending to the Katima Mulilo rapids, running along the Zambezi, eastward to its confluence with river Chiababi (Longitude 26 degrees east.)
This boundary is roughly the current Western Province but with the entire Kazungula, Livingstone and the Kafue National Park west of the Kafue river falling within Barotseland and small areas of North Western Province bordering the current Western Province.
The boundary between Barotseland and Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe remains the same as it is currently with Zambia.
Before we consider the implications on Southern, North Western and part of Central provinces, we shall first look at the issue of holding a referendum.
Holding a referendum on the lines of the one recently held by Scotland does not apply to Barotseland because there is currently no treaty in force between Barotseland and Zambia as the agreement or treaty was abrogated by Zambia and Barotseland accepted the abrogation on 27th March 2012 at the Barotseland National Council.
A referendum only applies were a treaty is in force like in the case of Scotland or Tanganyika and Zanzibar in the union of Tanzania but one of the parties wants to pull out.
Barotseland does not need a referendum to withdraw from the unitary state of Zambia because it does not exist. Both Zambia and Barotseland have no treaty obligations because of the 1969 abrogation.
Southern, Parts of Central and North Western Provinces
The dependent areas that fell within the control of Barotseland, (Trust and reserve Land) for which Barotseland was being paid by the British for taking care of them, include Southern Province, parts of Central and North western provinces.
These areas fall outside Barotseland proper but have the right to hold a referendum to choose where they want to belong whether to remain with Zambia or pull out.
Barotseland and Zambia should now commence the disengagement process which will see the exchange of defense forces and civil servants willing to relocate.
The sharing of government assets, repaying the &78.5 million pounds that Zambia looted from the Barotseland treasury,(with interest from 1965) loss of revenue from the mines, reparations and other damages will be handled by the International Court of Justice since Zambia has so far refused to cooperate.
But what will happen to those who have intermarried?
Marriage does not affect someone’s citizenship in any way; Zambians who are married to people from Rwanda or Zimbabwe still remain Zambians.
But I have properties in Zambia, what happens?
You can belong to any country without affecting your property. There are so many people with properties in Zambia like the many Chinese nationals in Zambia yet they are not Zambians but continue running businesses.
What about the Nkoyas?
The Zambian government has for a long time been using the divide and rule formula by sponsoring a few Nkoya brothers to create division.
The 1964 treaty however was signed between two countries and not tribes. It was signed between the government of Northern Rhodesia, the government of Barotseland and the British government as witnesses.
Kenneth Kaunda however later dissolved the Barotse government and renamed it as Barotse Royal Establishment and later changed the name of Barotseland through degree at a rally in Matero and named it Western Province and changed what was then called Western Province to Copper belt.
Kenneth Kaunda said the following on 26th August 1969 at Matero in a speech dubbed ‘I wish to inform the nation.’
‘Barotse Province is now to become Western Province. The present Western Province, which bears no relationship to the direction, will become Copper belt Province. Logically, Barotse Province should have been Western Province in view of the geographical location of North Western Province.’
Even before the change of name to Western Province , Kaunda defied his own Attorney General’s legal advice, the most respected legal adviser, Mr James John Skinner who, when delivering a Ministerial statement in Parliament on 18th September 1965,had advised that:
‘The legal name of Barotseland was Barotseland and not Barotse Province.’
Kenneth Kaunda had made the following assurance when he addressed the Litunga and Barotse government at Lealui on 6th August 1964:
‘I am glad that the basis of the agreement is that Barotseland is an integral part of Zambia and I can assure you, Sir Mwanawina and all members of the Barotse Royal Family and of the Barotse government, that government has no wish to interfere with the day to day running of the internal affairs of Barotseland. This is the responsibility of the Barotse government and the intention of the central government will be to give the Barotse government maximum assistance and cooperation.’
In one of Kaunda’s earlier visits to Barotseland to beg the Barotse government to proceed to independence as one with Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) Kaunda knelt down and cried before the Litunga and it was out of this action that the line ‘One land and one nation is our cry’ was picked and crafted in the Zambia national anthem.
Kenneth Kaunda has however elected to remain mute on the problem he created through his love for power