1. SPEAK TRUTH TO POWER: Martin Luther King was the leading civil rights voice for truth, reason and justice. He refused to back away from seeing reality as it was and speaking his mind about what he saw. That made him quite different from all other revolutionaries. Equally, Barotseland today needs revolutionaries who can speak the truth only to power the Barotse Change to its logical conclusion no matter what may betide.
2. BE AN INSPIRATION: King Luther understood that people are rarely swayed by facts and logic alone. He knew how to engage the mind and heart to bring truly revolutionary change. The same we need concerning Barotse Change today – men and women, boys and girls, ladies and gentlemen who are truly inspired to completely free Barotseland.
3. TELL STORIES AND USE VIVID IMAGERY: King used memorable stories and compelling metaphors to help his listeners remember his message and share it with others. His use of stories not only helped people to understand, but to spread the message far into the future. Indeed we have heard stories and seen imagery so far about Barotse Change much to our delight and education for prosperous Barotseland tomorrow.
4. CAST A COMPELLING VISION: over and over again, we see that great leaders are repeatedly associated with great visions—Martin Luther King was no exception. In fact, King's vision of a future America, a country where people are judged by the "content of their character" continues to lead and inspire the world up to date. Every Mulozi needs to catch the cast Vision of completely independent motherland by hearing and listening to Team Barotseland leaders when they speak AND NOT to the enemy of Barotse Change truth!
5. LIVE FOR SOMETHING BIGGER THAN YOURSELF: Martin Luther King was a bright, articulate, well-educated and powerfully connected young man. He could have easily stayed in the North after attaining his Ph.D. and lived a relatively comfortable and successful life. But instead he chose to focus on helping others less fortunate than himself. He chose to give his life to a cause that was more important than his individual life. This is the price of greatness. It is the leaders that focus on the needs and interests of others that leave a lasting impact. This is a clarion call to all Barotzish leaders whether confessed citizens in Barotseland or expatriates in Northern Rhodesia (‘Zambia’).
6. PERSEVERE: Never give up. We hear this message all the time: you have to stay in the game. When you fall, you have to pick yourself up. When life hands you a lemon juice, add a little bit of sugar to turn it into lemonade! This was the message of King Luther, too. He said, "IF YOU CAN'T FLY THEN RUN, IF YOU CAN'T RUN THEN WALK, IF YOU CAN'T WALK THEN CRAWL, BUT WHATEVER YOU DO YOU HAVE TO KEEP MOVING FORWARD."
7. THINK AND ACT INCLUSIVELY: Martin Luther King understood the value and power of including a broad and diverse group of people in his coalition. He understood the hate that many whites had toward blacks (including himself), but he also recognized that many whites were simply afraid and many others wanted what he wanted and were willing to do whatever they could to help (including sacrificing their own lives). Thus, King cultivated a broad, diverse coalition that included a number of leading politicians. As a result of King's inclusiveness, many whites were less afraid and more open and ready to do the right thing. Imagine how wonderful when all the Barotzis, international community and Northern Rhodesians become ready to do the right thing in resolving the political impasse between the once partners in the former Unitary Zambia! This is with the understanding that the breach between the two nations is irreparable, irreversible or unsalvageable.
8. ADOPT A SERVANT'S MINDSET: Martin Luther King's desire to serve was perhaps his greatest quality as a leader, and the factor by which he is most remembered. What's more is that King Luther understood the central role of service in creating a legacy. King Luther said, "Everybody can be great because anybody can serve. You don't have to have a college degree to serve. You don't have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love."
Are you ready to serve your country Barotseland regardless of your life qualifications? Adopting a servant’s mindset means, among other things, being ready at all times at the service of Barotseland not only when you have a post as a leader rather because you are a member of the web of Barotseland family with a unique niche to perform.
Tukongote wa mwanaa nongolo.
Due to popular demand, we have here below arranged and reproduced the entire section that Dr. Ndangwa Noyoo made on Barotseland’s quest for self-determination at the Workshop on Contemporary Zambian Politics, Centre for Social Science Research, 29 - 30 September, 2016, at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.
The section was titled, BAROTSELAND AND CALLS FOR TOTAL INDEPENDENCE:
I argue in my latest book, Barotseland’s amalgamation with Zambia: A political conundrum, that the Barotseland question was a conundrum that was solely created by the founding Zambian president Kenneth Kaunda and UNIP and then cemented by successive Zambian political administrations from 1991 to date.
This issue cannot be crushed or wished away. It is actually going to reconstitute Zambia in one way or another…Even if the Zambian Government and Zambians in general do not want this to happen…it will happen.
Zambia is an amalgamation of two former British colonial territories viz: Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia.
Zambia was consummated in May 1964 (before Zambia’s independence on 24 October 1964) when Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia merged after the signing of the now defunct Barotseland Agreement 1964.
Despite this, the Constitution Amendment Act 3 of 1969 - a so-called Constitutional Referendum reform of Kaunda and UNIP abrogated this treaty and henceforth criminalized the Barotseland question.
Whilst relying on draconian legislation and other instruments such as the State of Emergency, Barotse nationalists were detained at will by the Kaunda regime throughout the One party state era. The largest number of Barotse nationalists detained to date was 160 in 1973, including the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Barotse Government or Katengo, the late Hastings Ndangwa Noyoo (Government of the Republic of Zambia, 1995).
For many Zambians, this issue only ‘came to light’ after 1991, when the political space was opened – much to the irritation and consternation of many Zambians.
But the quest for an autonomous Barotseland had always been sought by the Barotse or Lozi as they had negotiated for this status in Zambia via the Barotseland Agreement.
The continuities of the past, as regards Barotseland are exemplified by, inter alia, the continuous criminalization of the Barotseland question by Zambian Governments for five decades.
But the tactics of UNIP cannot hold sway anymore as the world has changed.
Information is readily available due to the Internet etc. The tactics of UNIP of distorting and hiding information regarding the Barotseland question are obsolete.
Massive troop deployment, mass arrests and intimidation have not cowed the Barotse.
The Barotseland question can no longer be caricatured as ‘secession’ as it is a national question which Zambia has failed to answer in five decades.
Curiously, successive Zambian governments after 1991 had employed Kaunda’s and UNIP’s tactics to crush the Barotseland issue (in a so-called democratic dispensation) with thousands of Barotse or Lozi being killed, maimed, arrested at will, on mostly trumped up charges.
THE FOLLOWING KEY ISSUES WILL DEFINE THE BAROTSELAND ISSUE GOING FORWARD:
1. The MMD government of Rupiah Banda (2008-2011) will go down in Zambia’s history as one political administration that had perpetrated the most gruesome acts of state-led violence against the people of Barotseland. The Zambian Government’s brutality had resulted in the deaths of many Barotse nationals. These acts of violence were precipitated by what are now referred to as the ‘Mongu riots’ of 14 January 2011. This massacre had resulted in the deaths of about 18 individuals even though the Zambian Government claimed that there were only two people who died.
2. The Barotseland issue is no longer a ‘traditional affair’ but a nationalist struggle waged by various Barotse liberation movements whilst the current Litunga (King) of Barotseland and the so-called Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE) have effectively become moribund after allegedly being bribed by the Zambian Government and taking highly puzzling stances which directly violate Barotse governance, laws, customs and traditions.
3. On 14 August 2013, a Transitional Government of Barotseland was set up and an ‘Administrator General,’ Afumba Mombotwa. Mombotwa, who was also the Chairperson of LINYUNGANDAMBO (a Barotse nationalist movement), was ‘sworn in’ as the ‘Administrator General’ of Barotseland by the ‘Chief Justice’ in Mongu.
* AFTER THIS BAROTSELAND DECLARED A UNILATERAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (UDI) ALONG THE LINES OF KOSOVO.
4. On 27 March 2012, the people of Barotseland convened a Pizo or Barotse National Council (BNC), where they all unequivocally expressed their desire to reconstitute Barotseland into a sovereign nation (Barotseland’s ‘Brexit’ or Referendum). The BNC is the highest policy-making body in the indigenous Barotse political and governance systems. All seven districts of Barotseland were represented at the BNC through their traditional rulers with some people from the Barotse Diaspora in attendance. There were also some Zambian Government officials of Lozi origin who witnessed this occasion. Among other issues, the BNC gave notice in this manner:
“WE NOW INFORM ZAMBIA AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT WE FINALLY ACCEPT THE UNILATERAL NULLIFICATION AND THE ABROGATION OF THE BAROTSELAND AGREEMENT 1964 BY THE ZAMBIAN GOVERNMENT, WHICH ACTION HAS FREED BAROTSELAND FROM BEING PART OF ZAMBIA. IN LINE WITH THE POSTLIMINIUM DOCTRINE WE CAN NO LONGER BE OBLIGED TO HONOUR AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT THAT THE OTHER PARTY HAS NULLIFIED AND ABROGATED, WHICH HAS REVERTED US TO OUR ORIGINAL STATUS.”
5. Afumba Mombotwa, Likando Pelekelo and Sylvester Inambao Kalima were arrested on ‘treason’ charges and subsequently sentenced to 10 years.
6. The Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA) another Barotse nationalist movement recruited international Lawyers at the Dugué & Kirtley International Law Firm to take this matter to the International Court of Justice at the Hague.
7. It also launched an online petition for all nationals of Barotseland and those in the Diaspora to electronically sign a Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) which would allow for Barotseland’s legal status to be determined peacefully and in accordance with international law.
8. The late and immediate past president of Zambia, Michael Sata refused to sign the submission. More than 10, 000 Barotse signed the petition and more are still signing it. The international lawyers also sent through the PCA to the new Zambian president Edgar Chagwa Lungu. Thus far Lungu has not signed the PCA.
9. To its credit, the BRE through the Ngambela or Prime Minister, launched a case against the Zambian Government at the African Union’s (AU’s) African Commission on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR). After months of delay, the Zambian Government had responded and requested the case to be thrown out. However, the people of Barotseland through the Office of the Ngambela countered and added more evidence to their case. This process has not been concluded.
10. THE YOUTH FACTOR:
The struggle for Barotseland’s sovereignty has been taken up by the youth and in my opinion, they will decide the conclusion of this saga. They are more radical, many are incorruptible and resolute.
11. A case-in-point is that of the Barotse Youth League (BYL) leaders namely, Nayoto Mwenda, Boris Muziba and Sikwibele ‘Skwiz’ Wasilota who were arrested on trumped up charges. They were subsequently each sentenced to three years in prison with hard labour by Magistrate Malata of Kaoma Magistrate Court for “publication of false news with intent to cause fear or alarm to the public contrary to the laws of Zambia.”
12. The Magistrate also noted when passing sentence, that the trio’s “conduct during the court process was not good.” The young militants had contended throughout the trial that they could not be tried by a Zambian court as they were citizens of Barotseland.
13. The trio argue that Zambian courts were partial when it came to cases involving people from Barotseland. Incidentally, one of the accused, Mwenda, is a qualified lawyer. They then asked that their case be transferred to the Commonwealth Court which they said would impartially adjudicate the matter.
14. They defiantly went on to serve their three-year jail terms unshaken and not compromising on this held position. They were later released by Edgar Lungu through a presidential pardon.
15. As we speak five Barotse youth freedom fighters who were freed on 28 June 2016 by Kaoma Magistrate Chingumbe, who found them not guilty, over ‘seditious practices’ will be back on trial in Zambia’s higher court after the Zambia Government appealed the verdict. These youths were arrested for merely carrying and displaying an Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO) Flag. Barotseland is now registered with this organisation.
16. The BAROTSE INTELLIGENTSIA FACTOR:
Previously this group was instrumental in propelling the UNIP nationalist struggle against colonial rule and ironically undermining Barotseland.
17. These were notably the Wina brothers Sikota and the Arthur (deceased), Kabeleke Konoso and Munukayumbwa Sipalo (who the Barotse Youths refer to as ‘sell-outs’).
18. Other Barotse intellectuals were more pro-Zambia or simply disinterested. However, things are now different as the Barotse intelligentsia is playing a critical role in this struggle.
1. Immediately after signing the Unitary Treaty BA’64 it was Zambia that repudiated and abrogated it indicating she was repentant of her former act and thus craved for separation and divorce.
2. Zambia never included the Unitary Treaty BA’64 and its principles in her subsequent constitution meaning that she was not interested in it altogether in consequence to reason no. 1 above.
3. Zambia was there comfortably and officially represented and never objected as if in relief from the importunate acts by Barotseland for nearly 50 years golden period of futile efforts to reason with Zambian regimes for restoration of the defunct BA’64, during the historic day when Barotseland proclaimed the 2012 BNC Resolutions and ratified the UDI Mandate for total free Barotseland.
4. Zambia received communiques regarding Barotseland’s new status quo and was given chance according to international law principles to challenge Barotseland’s declared independence but Zambia remained mute and has never challenged it up to now. Silence means consent.
5. Zambia knows that Barotseland boundaries are equally documented at the world centre in Washington even long before there was a country called Zambia. This is a clear testimony that Barotseland and Zambia are two separate geographic territories, a fact that she cannot refute.
6. Zambia’s continued mal-interaction with Barotseland monarchy structure (BRE); the persistent preying of Zambia on Barotseland only validates the incompatibility of the once companions of the monarchy and republic government system in the abortive unitary state form.
7. The continued abuse of BRE by ‘Zambian’ government is a clear testimony that the Royal constitutional monarchy system of government of Barotseland is the best option of administration of Barotseland as RBG. I presume the British opted to give newcomer North Eastern Rhodesian governance political power over Barotseland monarchy in the unitary statehood of Zambia because we lacked a 100% political structure then in Barotseland to also continue enjoying our surrogate protectorate status under Zambia. Zambia should now be ready to face the political counterpart governance function of RBG for amicable disengagement talks, instead of fretting the weaker function of BRE.
8. Zambia’s 2016 abrogation and repudiation of her constitution is a clear ratification of the abrogation and repudiation of the BA’64 that Barotseland has no trace chance to get back into the rogue union treaty and would be a complete misfit in such a bogus unitary statehood with a partner highly contemptuous of her national and international legal framework.
9. The voting pattern (5 years after the last 2011 tripartite elections) in the just ended controversial quadripartite election pronounced a blessing in honour of the 2012 Barexit from the failed union of states of former Zambia, in addition to declaring the national and state boundaries.
10. Against all these reasons ‘Zambia’ has totally failed to demonstrate any valid reason and legal documentation why Barotseland should continue cohabiting with her illegally, given the fact that there is NO GHOST OR MONO UNITARY PARTNERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL LAWS!
Barotseland could only do so at the very cost of sacrificing her nationality and culture whilst being objects of derision, human, economic and political abuses. Thank God for visionary elders of motherland who rose up to the challenge of the occasion which culminated in the 2012 BAROTSE NATIONAL COUNCIL (BNC) RESOLUTIONS AND UDI MANDATE we wholeheartedly uphold at all cost!
Tukongote wa mwanaa nongolo.
President Ian Khama’s celebratory mood was dealt a serious blow when his colleagues within the SADC region snubbed the country’s golden jubilee celebrations on Friday. Officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation had early in the week refused to state the number of Head of state they were expecting. Only Mozambique and Swaziland were represented by the heads of state while Cuba and Namibia sent their vice presidents and Zambia was represented by the minister of foreign affairs. BOT50 organisers had early this year revealed that they are expecting more than 10 heads of state to attend the celebrations. Botswana, Lesotho, Zambia and Tanzania are the only countries within the SADC region which have gained the golden jubilee status. On Thursday morning, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe cancelled his trip Gaborone though he had earlier confirmed attendance. His cancellation is seen as arising from the recent utterances by President Khama in which he called for his retirement on basis of old age and failing policies. Khama told Reuters that Mugabe should step aside without delay for the sake of Zimbabwe and the region, comments that "shocked" officials in Zimbabwe. "The government of Zimbabwe is shocked by this uncharacteristic behaviour on the part of President Khama. It is taboo in African etiquette and diplomacy," Zimbabwe's Information Minister Chris Mushohwe said in a statement. "We sincerely hope that this will be the last time Botswana's leader opens his mouth to bad-mouth President Mugabe and fellow African leaders. Why should President Mugabe be removed from office unconstitutionally as President Khama's sentiments seem to suggest?" hit out Mushoshwe.
Zambia, which celebrated their golden jubilee last year, send its Minister of Foreign Affairs Harry Kalaba. During the Zambian golden jubilee celebrations President Khama delegated former Presidents Ketumile Masire and Festus Mogae. The foreign dignitaries that attended the celebrations included presidents of Mozambique Filipe Nyusi, King Mswati III of Swaziland and King Letsie III of Lesotho. Namibia’s vice president Dr Nickey Iyambo, Cuba’s vice president Mr Salvador Valdes Mesa, Former president of Namibia Hefikepunye Pohamba, former president of Nigeria Gen. Dr Yakubu Gowon and US assistant secretary of state for African Affairs Linda Thomas-Greenfield as well as UK’s Prince Andrew and King Leruo Molotlegi of Bafokeng from South Africa. Some political pundits have said that the snubbing was inevitable as President Khama has failed to attend a lot of Heads of State meeting in Africa and beyond. Political analyst Anthony Morima said the absence of both regional and continental heads of state is a clear indication that Botswana has been absent in the foreign affairs through its head of state. “It shows that our relationship with our fellow African leaders is not cordial as President has seldom visited other countries and or attend both regional and continental meetings,” observed Morima.
Meanwhile, Batswana didn’t seem to be affected by those missing from the guest list as they went fully out to enjoy the moment across the country. The country was in a fervent mood as the nation united in celebration of the golden jubilee in grand style. For two days the National Stadium was filled to capacity as people from all walks of life donned in Botswana national colours to enjoy ceremonial proceedings. On the independence eve, the nation broke into song and dance enjoying cultural performance and retreat ceremony by the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). The cultural performance took the crowd through the history of the country – from being one of the poorest in the world to be one of fastest developing in the world. There was deafening silence when an actor mimicked the speech by the first President Sir Seretse Khama made 50 years ago. The engaging drama was well choreographed. It was when they started to narrate the modern history of Botswana that spectators broke into ululations as they related well with the events.
The performance by local artists especially Scar, Franco and Charma Girl, Jeff Matheatau and Maxy took excitement to the highest level. It was Dr Vom’s performance that had everyone on feet; singing and dancing his famous song ‘Tsaya thobane’. Even President Ian Khama danced along. Independence Day celebrations started slowly with a parade by BDF followed by the arrival of the roving torch. The crowd went wild when over 7000 school children performed the Chinese callisthenics showcasing the history of Botswana. BDF Air force raised the bar when their jetfighters flew past; the crowd broke into ululation. In his address to the nation, President urged Batswana to think what they can achieve as nation. “As we celebrate our progress over the past fifty years, let us further contemplate what we can and should achieve if we continue to work together towards overcoming our current challenges, while building a society that delivers a dignified life to all,” he said. He urged the nation to work hard to achieve more.
Frank Elliot Lochner made several attempts to persuade King Lewanika of Barotseland to sign a concession with him. After extensive consultations within the Kingdom, an assembly of the nation, comprising members of the King’s Council, area indunas, village headmen and ordinary people was convened at Lealui on 27-6-1890 for the signing ceremony.
The signatories were as follows:
Lewanika (the King), Litia, his eldest son and heir to the throne. ( Litia succeeded his father in 1916 as King Yeta III).
Other signatories were Mwauluka, who was Ngambela (Prime Minister), and members of the inner cabinet (Councilors) as follows: Akufuna, Mukulwakashiko, Galibotse, Beunya, Kalonga, Nalishuwa, Namunda, Ingangwana, Lucanana Muwana, Imasikuana, Sikota and Alisheke.
The concession was further endorsed by representatives of regional authorities as follows;
From NALOLO KUTA – SENANGA: Induna Sambi - Administrator and Chief Advisor to the Regent Princess of Nalolo (Senanga), with fellow Councilors Ishee Kwandu, Mukwakwa, Imbuwa, Saywa, Sambiana, Namunda and Mukata.
From LIBONDA KUTA – KALABO: Induna Muleta - Administrator and Advisor to the Resident Princess and a Concillor Munono.
From SESHEKE REGION the following tribal leaders endorsed it; Induna Ratau, Katukula, Tahalima, Mwanamwalye, Nalishuwa, Mulife, Sekombwa, Mukamba (Chief of KAZUNGULA/KALOMO region), Liku (Chief of the NANZWA at WANKIE) Kwenani and Mukwela (of the LINYATI region), Musialela and Munukayumbwa (King’s brothers), and Likokwani (King’s nephew). Lastly, Liatika (King’s Secretary) also put his mark on the document.
The concession permitted the company to prospect for minerals in selected areas of the Kingdom. In return, the company, on behalf of the British government, gave guarantees of protection for the Kingdom and an annual grant of 2000 pounds to be paid in perpetuity.
Frank Elliot Lochner signed for the company with Francois Coillard and Adolph Jalla as witnesses. These two witnesses were missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Mission Society (PEMS), which established its first station at SEFULA (near Mongu) in 1897. They had earned the trust of the King and were entrusted with translating and explaining the implications of the document to the King and Council prior to its signing.
After the conclusion of these concessions, the company administration established fortresses at Fort Jameson (Chipata), Fort Rosebery (Mansa) and Abercon (Mbala). These fortresses were established to check against incursions of the Portuguese from East Africa, the Belgians from the Congo and the Germans from Tanganyika. At this stage the British Central African Protectorate was split into two administrative zones, with Fort Jameson becoming the headquarters for the area surrounded by the new fortresses which was named North Eastern Rhodesia. Zomba remained as the headquarters for the other part, named Nyasaland (Malawi).
Later, apprehensions were expressed regarding the authority of the 15 chiefs who had signed concessions with Joseph Thomson. See ‘The origins of the North Eastern Rhodesian Territory'
In a telegram addressed to Codrington, Administrator of North Eastern Rhodesia, on 15 March 1904, H. Wilson Cox of London Wall Buildings said, inter-a-lia, “Under the Lewanika Concession, our rights to minerals are very clear. But in North Eastern Rhodesia, our rights are founded upon a very large number of contracts made with personages whose existences today are somewhat mythical.
Subsequently, Henry Hamilton Johnston, Commissioner and Consular-General at Zomba, was tasked by Her Britannic Majesty’s Government to enquire into this matter, with a view to settling all land claims within the territories under British influence. In the process, the authority of the signatories to the concessions of North-Eastern Rhodesia was proven unreliable.
In order to remove the ambiguities and uncertainties of the ‘mythical personages,’ Johnston issued certificates of claim in favor of the BSAC dated 25 September 1893 in respect of all land within the areas represented by the 15 chiefs who had signed concessions with Thomson.
Four such certificates were issued as follows;
i) Certificate of Claim “A” covering areas of the present day Central, Lusaka and some parts of Luapula and Northern provinces up to the Luangwa River.
ii) Certificate of Claim “B” covering present day Eastern and some parts of Luapula and Northern provinces.
iii) Certificate of Claim “EF” and “K” covering the area around Mbala and part of Tanganyika (Tanzania) territory.
iv) Certificate of Claim “L”, known as the North-Charterland concession, covered present day Chadiza and Katete districts in the Eastern province.
With these certificates the company and its successors secured direct access to the land without resort to any other authority.
The areas covering present day Zambia’s Copperbelt province together with the land buttressed by the lower part of Kafue River and the lower Zambezi were treated separately by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
In order to bring a semblance of order in these areas, the British authority requested King Lewanika of Barotseland to hold the lands by establishing control structures within the areas.
The British offered Lewanika mineral royalties as remuneration for this service.
It should be stressed at this particular point that these areas are not necessarily part of Barotseland but were transferred to the Barotse King’s rule for convenience ( in the same manner the territories of Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia were administered under one Governor), in return for specific remuneration.
This ‘transferred area’ and Barotseland make up the territory which was called BAROTSELAND - NORTH WESTERN RHODESIA.
I hope this explains why the boundary of Barotseland under claim does not include Lusaka, Copperbelt and areas east of Kafue National Park and remove innuendoes of boundary orchestrated by enemies of Barotseland.
On the request of King Lewanika, the Company stationed a Resident Representative at Lealui. However, due to hostile conditions of mosquitoes and other water borne ailments, this representative asked to be shifted to higher ground.
Thereupon, he was shifted to Kalomo which became the British administrative center for Barotseland - North Western Rhodesia.
The recently sworn in but disputed Zambian president, Edgar Chagwa Lungu, has once again put himself up for public scrutiny by declaring that his government will soon start the process of discussing the defunct 1964 Barotseland Agreement.
According to the 19:00 hrs Monday prime time news monitored from Zambia’s national and government broadcaster, ZNBC, Mr. Lungu made the remarks about the dead Barotseland agreement in New York while entertaining scores of Zambians based in the US.
Mr. Lungu is in New York for the United Nations (UN) General Assembly.
This is not the first time he has personally made similar pronouncements over the matter at the sidelines of a major international forum, with the last such pronouncements having been made in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia last year at the sidelines of the African Union (AU) summit meetings early in his presidency.
IS IT TOO LITTLE TOO LATE?
In the run up to Zambia’s disputed 11th August presidential and general elections, Mr. Lungu, with his counterpart, Lubosi Imwiko II of Barotseland, set up a committee of mostly ruling Patriotic Front (PF) party sympathizers and compromised elements from Barotseland who he met at State House in Lusaka to purportedly prepare for the process of negotiations stage managed from State House. This move was widely seen to be an attempt to merely woo Barotse voters who responded by rejecting Mr. Lungu’s electioneering maneuvers. The entire region instead voted for Mr. Lungu’s main presidential challenger Hakainde Hichilema of the United Party for National Development (UPND) in seeming protest to his failure to fulfill earlier public pronouncements made on the matter.
DOES LUNGU MEAN WELL FOR BAROTSELAND?
ABSOLUTELY NOT as far as the majority Barotse are concerned, and the argument is that if Mr. Lungu’s plans towards Barotseland were well-intentioned, he would not be arresting those Barotse who supposedly want the same good intentions for Barotseland. He was indeed going to collaborate with them and listen to them through open and honest dialogue rather than curtailing all dialogue initiated by the major stakeholders, the people, in preference to a selected clique of the ruling elite. Mr. Lungu and his government have instead continued to arrest and imprison all the Barotse that peacefully wish to resolve the 1964 Barotseland agreement conclusively. Therefore, simple logic and common sense proves that his wishes for Barotseland are not the same as the wishes of those he is arresting. It is clearly why he is using everything and everyone he can afford to buy with money to confuse, if not stop the vision for a self-determined Barotseland.
WHAT DO THE BAROTSE PEOPLE WANT?
The Zambian government now want to impose a dead ‘Treaty’ on the people of Barotseland that has long been rejected firstly by Zambia in 1969, and then by Barotseland in 2012, only because international pressure has lately been mounting on Lungu and his Zambian government to peacefully let the Barotse exercise their right of self-determination outside Zambia, after it failed to inure under the abrogated 1964 Barotseland Agreement.
Mr. Lungu’s present efforts have deliberately sidelined and excluded all major stakeholders in Barotseland and senior citizens who have been pursuing the Barotseland case. Some of those notably sidelined are leaders of the independence movement Linyungandambo; Afumba Mombotwa and a couple of his Barotseland transitional government members, who are still serving lengthy prison sentences at Mwembeshi Prison over the same matter that Lungu now wants to discuss with the select ruling party cadres masquerading as Barotseland representatives. Others conspicuously left out of Mr. Lungu’s proposed Barotseland discussion committee are the Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA) headed by former Ngambela Clement W Sinyinda.
However, and according to Mr. Lungu, the process will not be allowed to degenerate into ‘anarchy’ – whatever that means.
IS BAROTSELAND’S CONTINUED ZAMBIAN DOMINATION AN OPTION?
To the people of Barotseland, no solution deviating from the 27th March 2012 Barotse National Council (BNC) which called for the restoration of Barotseland sovereignty will be acceptable as BNC decisions are considered sacred and must be obeyed by all, including the Litunga of Barotseland. The BNC is the supreme and highest policy making body under Barotse governance, and in 2012, the council voted to accept Zambia’s termination of the 1964 treaty which attempted to unite the two British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Barotseland to form the unitary state of Zambia. All the major stakeholders in Barotseland are resolute in standing by the unanimous decisions of the 2012 BNC which is also the most representative organ in Barotse governance and represents the consensus of the Barotse nation in the same way a referendum would.
The 2012 decision set Barotseland on an unstoppable trajectory for independence, and some reports indicate that it has started receiving documented bilateral and diplomatic recognition. Therefore, the Zambian government will do well to be cautioned against imposing a ‘solution’ that will not be acceptable to the people of Barotseland, who are already pursuing national and international processes for the peaceful disengagement from Zambia guaranteed under various international laws and politics.
One great thinker once said an ignorant person is not only a danger to himself but also to the people surrounding him. In this vain I would urge most of those people especially Zambians to just read through this brief article below in order not to become a nescience in the society.
The origins of the North Eastern Rhodesia territory is here explained.
Following the Berlin Conference of 1885 on the modus operand of partition of Africa, the British secured for themselves what became known as the British Central African Protectorate. This territory comprised the land east of the Kafue River including present day Malawi, and it was administered from Zomba.
On 29 October 1889, a Charter was promulgated in England giving birth to the British South African Company Chartered and Limited. This company then went into negotiations for mining concessions in Southern and Central Africa as a consequence of discovery of diamonds in Kimberly, South Africa in 1886. This hunt for concessions was spearheaded by Cecil John Rhodes who sent out two expeditions. One of these, led by Joseph Thomson and Alfred Sharpe went to the British Central African Protectorate while the other, headed by Frank Elliot Lochner, was sent to Barotseland.
The Thomson expedition had an encounter with and entered into concessions with a number of personalities. Whether these were chiefs or not will be decided by the reader. They were as follows:
On 12-5-1890, Mwape-chief of the Lukusasi country. His witnesses were Msoni and Zuza. The company was represented by Thomson with Sharpe as witness. The company paid 40 British pounds for this concession.
On 10-9-1890, Kambwiri - Paramount chief of Kibende, acting in conjunction with an Arab Salim bin Nasser who signed as a witness. 40 British pounds were paid by the company for this concession. The company was represented by Thomson as signatory while Charles Wilson and I.S Grant signed as witnesses.
On 15-9-1890, Katara- chief of Kusa and the Mchinga Mts. He had no witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson signed for the company with Wilson and Grant as witnesses.
On 22-9-1890, Nansara- Female chief of the Bisa people. She had no witness. 10 pounds paid. Thomson on behalf of company with Wilson as witness.
On 4-10-1890, Chitambo-paramount chief of the Bisa plateau. He had no witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson and Wilson on behalf of company.
On 11-10-1890, Mshiri- paramount chief of the Baushi country on the east of the Luapula and the Kabende people to the west of the river. No witness. 50 pounds paid. Thomson on behalf of the company.
On 16-10-1890, Kalonga- Sultan of the Eastern Lamba. 50 pounds paid. No witness. Thomson on behalf of the company with Grant and Wilson as witnesses.
On 18-10-1890, Simesi- Sultan of Western Lamba. No witness. 50 pounds paid. Thomson on behalf of company with Grant and Wilson as witnesses.
On 26-10-1890, Mkwemba- Sultan of the Central Lamba. No witness. 60 pounds paid. Thomson for the company with Wilson as witness.
On 6-11-1890, Mshiri- chief of Southern Lamba. 10 pounds paid. No witness. Thomson on behalf of the company.
On 12-11-1890, Chipepo-Sultan of the Lenje, a country occupying the middle basin of the Lukanga river and the upper basin of the Mulungushi river as far south as latitude 140.15 South. No witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson for the company.
On 22-11-1890, Kanyesha of the south-western country of the Lala people. No witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson for the company with Wilson and Grant as witnesses.
On 25-11-1890, Chavira- chief of the western Nsenga. No witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson for the company with Wilson and Grant witnessing.
On 27-11-1890, Chevia and Miembe-chiefs of the Nsenga. No witness. 20 pounds paid. Thomson for company with Wilson and Grant witnessing.
In all these transactions an Arab, Jumah Abubakar, served as interpreter. Whether or not he was fluent enough in the diverse languages of the Bisa, Bemba, Lamba, Lala, Chewa, Lenje etc is a matter of speculation.
Our own history has it that Zambia was made up of three distinct territories namely BAROTSELAND, NORTH-WESTERN RHODESIA and NORTH-EASTERN RHODESIA; each one with traceable clear boundary. Of the three the first one to get organised as a political entity, with ANTIQUITY ORIGINS, was Barotseland followed by North-Western Rhodesia by action of LOCHNER TREATY of 1890 between the British Empire and Kingdom of Barotseland. The Barotse Reserve as it appears in some historic records referred to Barotseland reserved for Litunga and his nation and was recognised as a state and nation already from 1885-1916 during the partition of Africa while the concession areas offered to the BSAC for mineral prospecting, mining and other commercial enterprises formed the territory known as the North-Western Rhodesia. The two territories were amalgamated and brought under the administrative jurisdiction of the British Crown in 1899 by way of an Order-in-Council as BAROTSELAND – NORTHWESTERN RHODESIA. On the other hand, North-Eastern Rhodesia was a newer establishment by BSAC by way of the North-Eastern Rhodesia Order-in-Council of 1900. Furthermore, NORTHERN RHODESIA was established in 1911 by the BSAC for the purpose of bringing the above mentioned territories; Barotseland-Northwestern Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia under one jurisdiction for administrative convenience. Forty three (43) years later ZAMBIA was born out the three territories in 1964 by way of the Union Treaty called BAROTSELAND AGREEMENT (BA’64) evidently rather pre-maturely because unfortunately the treaty was repudiated and abrogated long before the signature inks could even dry up! The conclusion here is that it was simply a forced union since the territories were seemingly not really ready for the integration; in the spirit and import of the International Treaty BA’64.
The current circumstances surrounding the three territories formally dubbed as “Zambia” should not be surprising therefore, because Zambia has been in denial for too long and in injury time now, since the expiry of the defunct BA’64. As Zambia begins to fade into a failed state many political analysts now expected that she will do everything available and possible in philosophies of dictatorship to preserve the remnants of her faked “unitariness”, to save her face as well as maintain her status quo, due to her constitutional crisis. But this is purely fighting a wrong battle with most dire consequences. All this could have been avoided if only Zambian successive regimes had been committed and compliant with both her local or national constitutional and International legal frameworks.
To start with history has recorded that the founding republican president Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda became president whilst a foreigner, overtaking native politicians likes Litunga Mwanawina Lewanika III in Barotseland, Simon Kapwepwe, Harry Mwanga Nkumbula, and others from North-Eastern Rhodesia and North-Western Rhodesia respectively. He only became a Zambian citizen in 1971! Since his time the politics of abrogating constitutional principles, overtaking others and disregarding legal frameworks became the norm, climaxing into the present awful anarchic scenario. Therefore, the 2016 political landscape is nothing new but a consummation of the half century political saga, this part of Africa.
The Bible states in John 18:14 and I quote “Now Caiaphas….. gave counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people “[KJV]. When uttering these words the High Priest Caiaphas actually did not know that his evil scheme to kill the man Jesus would be a blessing in disguise consistent with the plan of redemption for the salvation of all willing members of the whole race of mankind in both Testament dispensations! Unmistakeably, that was the paradox of it all for they were fighting the wrong battle. I find a similar parallelism of this fact in “DUNUNA REVERSE” – really going by the prevailing political atmosphere it is beyond doubt that Zambia must reverse to her individual territories before 1964. I find this turn of events quite unfortunate for the proponents and engineers of Dununa Reverse because it has a contradictory message in favour of what they did not expect. It is a continuation of the legacy of fighting wrong battles and as it were a can of worms has instead been opened! Fortunately, it is the only way forward now, in my view, and following the “F.I.F.O.” principle of First-In-First-Out of the failed unitary statehood. With Barotseland having opted out first as Barexit in 2012 and it will not be surprising also to see North-Western Rhodesia territory start her exit crusade from the failed unitary state of Zambia. Obviously, North-Eastern Rhodesia will have no choice but to opt out and accept her own mess and have a chance to experience real peace thereafter, contrary to the bogus peace preached for the past half century. That will be the beauty of fighting own battles all together by the former Zambian territories! And so, it is ‘Dununa Reverse’ in the following withdraw order from 1 to 3, at complete disintegration:
1. Barotseland (Royal Kingdom transformed to democratic/Constitutional form in 2012)
2. North-Western Rhodesia (Concession Areas between Barotseland & North-Eastern Rhodesia)
3. North-Eastern Rhodesia
The stage 4 and 5 which formed an important role in the formation of Unitary Zambia are now irrelevant and overtaken by the political imperatives owing to the defunct BA’64 and the consequent failed unitary statehood of Zambia.
4. Northern Rhodesia (Barotseland North-Western Rhodesia + North-Eastern Rhodesia)
5. Zambia (Unitary State premised on Barotseland Agreement of 1964 – BA’64).
All along Barotseland continued to enjoy her British protectorate and autonomy status but trouble started at stage five (5) above, when Kenneth Kaunda appeared on the political arena!
There is no need now to remerge with any territory for once beaten twice shy. Each territory has enough resources to render them viable politically and economically. What may be lacking in one country creates room for international trade with those who have according to the economics of competitive advantage and comparative advantage. So where is the problem I ask?
The opposition on the other hand has equally been caught fighting a wrong battle for their slogan Zambia Forward seems to resonate better with the out dated slogan of One Zambia One Nation against the ordeal that they cannot rule Zambia because they are not Zambians. Hence justifications of calls by North-Western Rhodesians for further mutilations of the former nation of Zambia, as Zambia gets poised to experience a second ‘seismic wave’ of further separation this time by the North-Western Rhodesians gaining momentum and impetus by the prevailing political environment in that territory. It happened in the history of Europe and I wonder if this could be a truism of what we find in Daniel 2:43 “And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay” [KJV]. Besides the slogan of One Zambia One Nation inter-marriages (, mingling ourselves with the seed of men) also has been tried to cleave the three territories but to no avail like mixing iron and clay shall not cleave one to another.
In a nutshell, we need to learn lessons from the separation of the constituent states and nations of the former USSR and others which disagreed and agreed to separate amicably, and realised after all that life is still normal even after political disengagement from each other. We are not the first ones to be affected by intermarriages and the like.
Against all this background I wish to state unambiguously that it is dangerous for anyone to keep fighting wrong battles. Time has come for us as Barotzis to fight our own battle. The initial Barexit needs the second phase which involves the aggressive ascertaining of who we are wherever we are as Barotzish in concluding Barotse Change. For instance, who said that to speak Silozi is tribalism when Silozi is not a tribe just like English is not a tribe! This fact is a cause for concern, patriotism and nationalism among all Lozi tribes (Barotzis) wherever we are! Most of our people have been ardent speakers of other languages even on Barotseland soil for fear of being labelled tribalist! WE NEED THE SECOND PHASE OF BAREXIT TO OPT OUT OF THE “TRIBALISM” LABEL, EXUDE THE BAROTSE CHANGE AND SHOW THE WORLD THAT IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO EAT OUR LOZI FOOD BUT NATIONALISM; IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO SING OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM BUT PATRIOTISM AND NATIONALISM; IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO DRESS OR WEAR BAROTSELAND ATTIRES BUT NATIONALISM AND PATRIOTISM; IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO WALK THE BAROTZISH WALK BUT NATIONALISM AND PATRIOTISM; IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO WRITE AND READ ABOUT BAROTSELAND BUT NATIONALISM AND PATRIOTISM; IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO DANCE TO LOZI MUSIC BUT NATIONALISM AND PATRIOTISM; LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST, IT IS NOT TRIBALISM TO SPEAK OUR SILOZI WHEREVER BECAUSE BEING LOZI IS NOT A TRIBE BUT NATIONALISM AND NATIONAL LANGUAGE, NOT NATIONAL TRIBE JUST LIKE ENGLISH IS NOT TRIBE. We can go on and on to show why we have every reason to be proudly Barotseland citizen, demonstrate the beauty of fighting your own battle and supporting our Royal Barotseland Government and national programmes. This has been the passion behind our story of Barotse Change articles since 2013. It has been all about you and me being true to self and converting from the beguiling guile and leaven of ‘Zambianism’ to purely Barotzish mindset because that is what we are. Remember, “if you cannot do great things, do small things in a great way” Napoleon Hill, and Vidal Sassoon once said “The only place where success comes before work is in the dictionary.” So, do something about Barotse Change no matter how big or small. It is BAREXIT second and final phase. The beauty of fighting your own battle is that the truth shall vindicate you and set you free!
TUKONGOTE, LITUNGA NI LYETU!
The words of wisdom, patriotism and nationalism indeed from the Editor General’s desk, which appeared in Barotseland Post of 3rd September, 2016 in an article entitled “Barotseland must awaken her sense of nationalism” deserve our utmost attention and echoing. Patriotism and Nationalism are more than imperative perspectives of Barotse Change. They are a must do and our life blood by now and I therefore wish to reiterate the same because of the profound significance, solemnity and impetus they transmit and bear in Barotseland nation regarding Barotse Change. It is a reality and theme that should excite and invigorate every minute of every Barotseland citizen. And I do hereby passionately plead, through this piece of writing, with any fellow citizen of mine still belligerent to the reality of our present truth and Barotse Change to introspect and get aboard the independence train to completely New Barotseland.
In his article Mr Sibeta Mundia emphasised that “A patriot will stand and fight because land and territory is under threat, but a nationalist must fight because identity, culture and values are undermined.” This premises my submission in this presentation.
THE ROLE PLAYED BY SILOZI (SEROTSE) LANGUAGE
This is our NATIONAL LANGUAGE and Lingua Franca alongside the OFFICIAL LANGUAGE English supported by the 38+ (actually 47 by October, 1964 official records) ethnic dialects. The role played by language can neither be underestimated nor overemphasised in efficient and effective communication of the Barotse culture, values and national identity in the community of Barotseland, especially so in instilling patriotism and nationalism. No wonder in Zambia today it is a celebrated success that most people can speak Bemba and/or Nyanja, one of the signs to them of their supposed power and dominance above all others in that country. In Mr Mungandi’s patriotic and nationalistic standpoint in the article of 28th August 2016 entitled “FACING REALITY: The ‘One Zambia One Nation’ fallacy put to a reality check” of Barotseland Post I totally agree with him that the ‘One Zambia, One Nation slogan is a fallacy that should be dismissed for it is really a myth now; actually it expired fifty years ago, as soon as it was phrased! So instead of One Zambia, One Nation we espouse our national Slogan LITUNGA IN LYETU while embodying the value of “One Barotseland, One Nation” in the spirit of our current truism of independent Barotseland. IT IS SHEER FOOLISHNESS for anyone to hope against Barotseland autonomy because there is no other truth about it other than the current status quo. The only relationship between Barotseland and ‘Zambia’ now is neighbourliness NOT slogans and the like.
There is need for concerted efforts by all stakeholders in Barotseland to ensure that this is a national priority campaign more than before, henceforth. Let the markets, buses, workplaces, homes and all over make the national language one indeed. In my recent visit to Mongu and Livingstone I were delighted to note that there is growing attention and progress in this regard with a few exceptions at bus ranks, markets and certain buslines especially those heading to Lusaka and Livingstone where our people are still forced to speak the foreign languages reminiscent of black on black colonialism! Much more needs to be done to redress the situation in this regard.
THE ROLE PLAYED BY TECHNOLOGY, MUSIC AND DRAMA
Barotse shoppers need to be commended in this area for having embraced Barotse Technology by playing the soft copies of Lozi books for the restoration of our Silozi jargon and sayings much for the benefit and interest of the lost and disillusioned youths and adults. The entertainment world and art industry need our commendation too for the music and drama we see around embracing Barotseland technology and a Proudly Barotseland Product mindset. More still needs to be done in these areas though. Our local artist should know that their newest releases are ever overdue and the Barotse populace is eagerly awaiting the purchase of the anticipated new products; imagine how beautiful! It is all about using the amalgamated power of patriotism, nationalism and national symbols in the public domain to enhance the ultimate resolve of our Barotse Change; the 2012 BNC Resolutions and UDI Mandate. Music and drama have their own unique way of driving points home. It is not surprising therefore, to see these intellectual property products being widely used in political campaigns, commercial advertisements, worship services and other social gatherings to drive the point home.
GETTING TO ACTION!
Seeing how important the subject of patriotism and nationalism is it becomes mandatory and an open high level classified recommendation and priority that our people, as Barotzish, we start dressing ourselves, our properties and drapery in the national colours in trying to instils these virtues and reality in us and thus raise high the Barotseland National Flag. This is very necessary in removing the veil and plague of identity crisis among our people, replacing them with ‘Tukongote wa mwanaa Nongolo’ Slogan and Proudly Barotzish mindset, in branding our new nation; just because birds of the same feathers (colour, culture, etc.) fly together. We cannot wait for BTG’s official raising of the National Flag for us to individually fly it high somewhere, somehow. You can pledge 2016 onwards to be the special times of these colours’ emphasis or focus in our homestead or workplaces in our own way of choice. Neither can we wait for the issuance of national identity documents (Zibahazo or Situpa, Bukana ya Musipili or Passport) for us to clarify the issues of identity crisis – your natural self is first class bonafide identity you are endowed with in branding yourself and our Barotseland. That is one of the best salient ways, in my view we can manifest the patriotism and nationalism in advocacy here.
The most unfortunate present reality is that our history will have recorded that the greatest tragedy of our period of Barotse Change was not due to the harsh obstruction by the unscrupulous, dishonest, unprincipled, dodgy, corrupt, ruthless and scavenging Zambian politicians, rather the scandalous silence of some good people who are unpatriotic, unnationalistic Barotzish and some of our international fraternity; those who could do something positive regarding the political stalemate between Barotseland and Zambia but have chosen to keep quiet for whatever reasons! Which side are you?
WRAPPING UP OF THE WHOLE MATTER!
By engaging in patriotic and nationalistic activities we are INSTILLING THE MUCH NEEDED NEW THINKING AND MINDSET CHANGE IN THE NEW BAROTSELAND, IN PLACE OF THE BOGGLED SERVITUDE MINDSET. One way you can do this is to promote the use of the national symbols like Silozi language, Barotseland National Flag and its colours and Barotseland National anthem as ringing tones or others. Procrastination is a thief of time. Like Prof. Imenda Sitwala rightly stated in his last article in Barotseland Post dated 18th August, 2016 “There is a difference between being unable to see and refusing to see.” IS IT TRUE THAT YOU CAN’T SEE OR YOU ARE REFUSING TO SEE THAT YOU ARE A LOZI NATIONAL AND BAROTSELAND CITIZEN? CAN IT BE TRUE THAT YOU CAN’T READ ALL AVAILABLE EVIDENCE OR YOU ARE JUST DEFYING THE TRUTH THAT BAROTSELAND AND ZAMBIA ARE TWO SEPARATE COUNTRIES NOW? HOW POSSIBLE CAN IT BE THAT YOU HAVE NEVER HEARD OR YOU ARE REFUSING TO HEAR, LISTEN AND UNDERSTAND WHEN ZAMBIA SAYS “NO LOZI WILL EVER RULE ZAMBIA”? We have never been Zambians really; the truth very much known in the most privileged inner circles in Zambia, only when it suited KK’s deception philosophy and his plan to obliterate our nation and country Barotseland. We cannot afford to continue being profligate about Barotse Change Truth and its ideals, especially so at a late hour like now when the handwriting is clear on both the Barotseland and Zambian walls! The time for rogue citizenship and benefits thereof is numbered up! As for me Barotse Change truth has really liberated me from the many questions I used to ask myself and no one will be able to take away the truth from me.
Tukongote wa Mwanaa Nongolo. Litunga ni lyetu.
With the famous 11th August 2016 election over, the Zambian people are awaking from a deep slumber and questioning themselves as to whether they should continue believing in the ‘One Zambia, One Nation’ fallacy or they should dismiss it for the myth that it really is. More than ever before, it has become so clear that for half a century the people of the fictitious and failed unitary state called Zambia have been coerced and duped to believe a misleading notion that they are ‘one Zambia’ and ‘one Nation’.
The voting pattern which is not at all different from what it has always been, except that it is much more clearer than ever before, has shown beyond doubt that there are at least two Nations here no matter how much we ignore the plain truth, because numbers never lie. In Silozi we say ‘Ha u koni ku buza nja ya muna inge u ibona’ literally meaning you can’t question whether a dog is male or not while looking at it. The fact that ‘one Zambia one nation’ is an erroneous belief is to me as clear and sticks out like the nose on your face. It is myth!
11th August, 2016, Zambian Presidential Election Voting Pattern continue to show Zambia as a divided nation.
BACKGROUND OF THE ‘ONE ZAMBIA ONE NATION MOTTO
Though most Zambians east of the Kafue River do not want to acknowledge this plain truth, it is none the less true that the famous Zambian Motto popularised by Zambia’s first President Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda has its origins in the Barotseland Agreement 1964 (BA’64). It was uplifted from the preamble of the Agreement:
“And whereas it is the wish of the Northern Rhodesia Government and the Litunga of Barotseland, his council and the chiefs and people of Barotseland that Northern Rhodesia should proceed to Independence as one country (Zambia) and that all its peoples should be one Nation.”
The unilateral abrogation of the BA’64 in 1969 by the UNIP Government sets the motto in disarray and absolute quandary, earmarking it for a total and permanent collapse. The BA’64 is the foundation of the motto and like the fate of the house built on the sand without a foundation in the gospel story, the Motto is destined for a total and crushing collapse. The bible says “And the ruin of that house was great” Lk 6:46. The ‘one Zambia one nation’ motto cannot stand without the BA’64 upon which it was founded.
THE TWO NATIONS
It is a clear historical fact that Zambia as we know it today is a cosmetic country created by the Colonial overloads purely for purposes of satisfying there colonial ego, greed and appetite to amass more land, power and control. By 1911, the land mass that has evolved into two British territories namely North Eastern Rhodesia and Barotseland North Western Rhodesia were further Amalgamated to form the jurisdiction styled as Northern Rhodesia for administrative convenience. In 1964 these two territories that Amalgamated into Northern Rhodesia proceeded to Independence as ‘Zambia’ after protracted negotiations with the BA’64, the end result of those long and hard negotiations, as the glue that was to keep them together. Unfortunately the BA’64 was hastily mutilated by the Zambian government of Kenneth Kaunda leading to its unilateral abrogation in 1969. History attests to the numerous effort by the Barotse people to ensure that the BA’64 is adhered to as a way of protecting the amalgamation, but these efforts fell on the deaf ears of their North Eastern counterparts who only wanted the ‘one Zambia one nation’ without the agreement that gave birth to it. Needless to say that in 2012 on 27th March, at a duly constituted Barotse National Council, The Barotse People resolved to accept the unilateral abrogation of the BA’64 rendering the amalgamation of the two Northern Rhodesians null and void.
One Zambia one Nation as a motto was intended to promote the unitary nature of Zambia by protecting the Rights of the Barotse and the allied people groups who are basically a minority within Zambia. With the BA’64 out of the picture, it has been turned into a tool of forced dominion of North Eastern Zambia over South Western Zambia which was (roughly) Barotseland North Western Rhodesia. This can be described as the dictatorship of the majority.
11th AUGUST, 2016 ELECTIONS: ZAMBIA
The elections of the Zambian President, Members of the Zambian Parliament (MPs), Mayors and Council Chairmen as well as Councillors for the Zambian Cities, Municipalities and Districts which took place on 11th August in the year of our Lord 2016 have gone but they will forever remain controversial and highly disputed in the history of Zambia as a nation. Accusations and counter accusation of tribal based voting pattern have been thrown back and forth to each side of the dividing line. A petition is currently before the Zambian Constitutional Court challenging the election of President elect, Edgar Chagwa Lungu alleging massive rigging and electoral malpractices on the part of the winning candidate and party.
The rigging and electoral malpractice allegation notwithstanding, when you compare the amount of work and effort the two leading presidential candidates put in; one is compelled to conclude that the losing candidate put in more effort both in his stronghold and non stronghold areas. Like someone made a comment on social media; that how did ECL expect the people of Dundumwezi to vote for him when he did not campaign there stating that the people of Dundumwezi did not take lightly the issue of being left out on the chance of a free concert by some of Zambia’s most renowned musicians. Clearly all the effort by HH to touch every corner of Zambia during his campaign trail was not good enough while the mild campaign by ECL who did not bother to touch every angle of Zambia leaving out many constituencies throughout the ninety (90) days campaign period was good enough. The answer to this puzzle is the fact that ugly though it may be the two main candidates in the presidential elections were representing two distinct constituencies, two countries as it were and the other (ECL) had an inbuilt majority. It was and will forever be a mission impossible to overturn this inbuilt majority. That is the simple reality!
Someone has said that when an honest man comes face to face with the truth that he hitherto had not known; he either accepts the truth for what it is or ceases to be an honest man. For sure there are numerous fraud allegations in this particular election, but for me the bottom line is that this is a cosmetic country that we are trying to keep together but discarding the very glue that was intended to keep it together.
INTERROGATING THE HALF CENTURY OLD FALLACIOUS MOTTO
The question really is must we continue believing in the myth of ‘one Zambia, one nation’ when all indication are contrary to the notion? I turn on my TV and hear someone say “The elections are now over, let us move on as ‘one Zambia one nation’”. Is it that easy really, when the election results themselves have clearly indicated that we have two distinct nations? Shall we turn a deaf ear and a blind eye to the reality? I am convinced beyond doubt that no matter how many ‘One Zambia One Nations’ we recite in a day (like ‘Hail Marys’) Zambia cannot hold as one nation. Like Professor Sitwala N. Imenda has rightly observed in his recent article;
“... Zambia is doomed; it has no future; it is soon to implode from within - the centre will soon fail to hold.... A country born out of deception cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country in constant denial cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country without capable leaders cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country with dishonest leaders cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time.”
To sum it all up, ‘One Zambia One Nation’ as a motto is not a correct truism or axiom; because Zambia is not one country anymore (if it has ever been at all) and its people are not one Nation. Let all the stake holders face this reality and allow the peoples of the two Nations exercise each their inalienable Human Right to Self-determination other than to be bottled up within the artificial and cosmetic boundaries created by the colonial masters which no longer serve any purpose.
Barotseland is a Nation. This is what it is, and those who are "Zambianized" by the magic spell of Kenneth Kaunda should get it right from now. Barotseland people are not cowards by not reclaiming their country by way of armed force, but are people endowed with conscience and reason by the Creator, as such opted for a civilized way of peaceful conflict resolutions which of course has time limit frame.
Unlike Zambians, people of Barotseland are Lozis or Ma Lozi with a King as a common heritage. Barotseland people all sing the same Anthem expressively: viz "Barotseland the land of our forefathers." Surprisingly, the Zambia National Anthem reads: "Africa is our own motherland: fashioned with, and blessed by, God's good hand."
This is ridiculous! We do not know of any African nation that sings the same chorus of claiming the whole territory as theirs! Really, Barotse people do not claim Africa or other people's territories. In fact we pray that the people must live happily in their own lands without forced annexation.
Those with knowledge, sense, reason, logic and intelligence are able to discern the difference between Barotseland and Zambia.
However, those drunk with the strong wine of Kaunda's DOCTRINE of "One Zambia, one Nation, one leader, and that leader, Kaunda WAMUYAYAYA: in heaven, God; and on earth, Kenneth Kaunda, and whose philosophy is humanism: where there is man at the centre of everything and this man at the centre of everything was Kaunda himself, believed in whatever Kaunda declared as 'eternal' law: even "Western Province". It is unbelievable that even the wise, scholars, young and old, rich and poor are all drunk with his wine of believing in nonentity 'Western Province!' It is for their indescribable ignorance that they do react and hate us: for our knowledge and separate identity and for the truth we speak!
The Zambian authority is like ancient fallen Babylon, who are now experts at deception, cheating, lying, delusion, beguilement and dishonesty. Therefore, they are very deceitful and insincere in all their dealings. However, Zambia's corrupt ideologies shall never stop Barotseland from being a Nation; even though the flood of Zambia's evil schemes surge from its belly and mouth. Let Zambians know that even if a lie is told a million times, it is still a lie.
Nobody can successfully erase the nation of Barotseland or its history and exterminate the Lozi's existence. Our Nation, "Barotse Nation", shall remain, till the end of time!
The foregoing is an extract from, Afumba Mombotwa’s writings.
Barotseland Administrator General Afumba Mombotwa is a prisoner of conscience, serving a ten year Zambian jail sentence for constituting a transitional Barotseland government in accordance with the Barotse National Council (BNC) mandate of March 2012 that declared the restoration of Barotseland sovereignty. Barotseland’s ill-fated union with Zambia failed to hold after the latter unilaterally abrogated the terms of the 1964 union treaty barely a year after it was signed, while Barotseland officially accepted its abrogation in 2012, setting Barotseland on course to sovereignty, rejecting Zambian annexation.
“..the centre will soon fail to hold, and the reason for this gloomy outlook is something some of us have been singing for years, albeit to a deaf audience – and every election that passes takes the country closer and closer to that doom’s day; to the country’s Armageddon,” Prof.Imenda.
FIGHTING A WRONG WAR
In this short piece I reflect on the state of things as pertaining to the just-ended elections in Zambia, with a specific focus on the presidential elections because that is where national identity lies. If you cannot identify with the position of President for fifty years in a country you call your own, then there is something deadly wrong; if you perpetually get ruled by presidential candidates whom you have rejected in every election, then you’re headed nowhere and the word ‘democracy’ carries no meaning for you.
FACTS OF THE MATTER
All sincere and knowledgeable people know that the founding document of Zambia’s independence as a Unitary State was the Barotseland Agreement 1964. Without that Agreement, there would not have been a country called Zambia as it has been known to the world. As a founding document, the Agreement served as the centre piece of Zambia’s constitution at the beginning of her journey as a sovereign political entity. However, it was the subsequent erasure of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 from Zambia’s constitution which has had tragic consequences for the country by plunging it into a constitutional crisis which has persisted to the present day. Equally important is the point that the expunging of the Agreement from the Zambian constitution also amounted to a flagrant violation of the Barotse people’s human rights and fundamental freedoms. In the blink of an eye, characterised by a stroke of the pen, all the constitutional privileges, protections, rights “and fundamental freedoms of the individual”, which the Barotse people were meant to enjoy by virtue of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 were suddenly totally obliterated. The same person who had signed the Agreement and taken oath to honour and protect it was the same one who engineered its downfall by seeing to it that it was removed from the country’s constitution. I do not know what other people would call this but to me this is blatant dishonesty, betrayal and corruption of the highest order – serious enough to have such a leader successfully tried for high treason and imprisoned for a very long time, or even sentenced to death.
What most people do not understand is that by removing the Barotseland Agreement from Zambia’s constitution, this has meant that one cannot speak about the Agreement and all the rights, privileges and freedoms which it embodied because the action has had the effect of outlawing the Barotse people’s entitlement to those rights, privileges and fundamental freedoms. So, Zambia police and army can then arrest, maim, torture and kill any person who brings up the matter of the Agreement because it is not provided for in the country’s constitution any more. This is what makes the action of the Zambian government a violation of Barotse people’s human rights. The people of Barotseland came into the Union carrying a basket of specified rights, privileges and fundamental freedoms; they did not just walk in carrying nothing. This explains why for 43 years, from 1969 to 2012, the people of Barotseland continuously petitioned the Zambian government to put the Agreement back into the Zambian constitution so that their citizenship as Zambians could once again be restored. In response, the Zambian government consistently rejected this polite request, and reacted violently against the people it defined as enemies of the State. So, inevitably, on 27 March 2012 the people of Barotseland resolved that they could and would no longer continue to honour an imaginary treaty which had fallen away many years previously. Indeed, the Zambian government had stated in written correspondence that as far as it was concerned, the Agreement was stale and was not worth the paper it was written on. Thus, there was no other choice than to accept the termination of the Agreement, and by that action begin the process of formally disengaging from the political farce consummated in1964; but, alas, the Zambian government has reacted to this with lethal force and incessant acts of terrorism against the people of Barotseland. They are now enforcing an imaginary, make-believe Unitary State by force, while professing to be a democratic and Christian country. This is why I say Zambia is doomed; it has no future; it is soon to implode from within – the centre will soon fail to hold. The reason for this gloomy outlook is something some of us have been singing for years, albeit to a deaf audience – and every election that passes takes the country closer and closer to that doom’s day, to the country’s Armageddon. A country born of deception cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country in constant denial cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country without capable leaders cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country with dishonest leaders cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time.
REFUSING TO SEE
There is a difference between being unable to see and refusing to see. Many Zambians have refused to see that a country which was born out of dishonesty, deception and fraud cannot stand the test of time; many Zambians have refused to see the injustices meted out consistently and disproportionately onto the people of Barotseland by successive Zambian governments; many Zambians have refused to see that their government has committed (and continues to commit) gross human rights violations against the people of Barotseland by, inter alia, refusing them to re-establish their own sovereign state after terminating the Barotseland Agreement; many Zambians have refused to see the brutality of their government in the face of continued trumped up arrests, torture and killings of the people of Barotseland; many Zambians have refused to see the perpetual servitude faced by the people of Barotseland as a result of having their rights and fundamental freedoms violated by successive Zambian governments.
Surely, if Zambians were the same people as the people of Barotseland, some of them would by now have shared in the excruciating pain perpetually suffered by the people of Barotseland while some would have seen and wiped the people of Barotseland’s tears streaming down their cheeks every day; some would have even heard the people of Barotseland’s cries and comforted them and others still would have listened to their silenced voices and answered them. Many would have by now smelt the people of Barotseland’s despair and given them hope, yet others would have tasted the Barotse people’s sorrow and misery – and lifted their spirits and others more would by now have stepped forward to comfort their haemorrhaging hearts occasioned by the many losses of their loved ones mercilessly butchered by Zambia police and other Zambian security operatives. Others among them would have dressed up the people of Barotseland’s bleeding sores; and some would have shared in their many stories of grief. But, no! This agony, which the people of Barotseland continue to go through daily, means nothing to the Zambians. They are happy and content to carry on; to celebrate their victory; for them it is business as usual while the people of Barotseland continue to gnash and grind their teeth – and hope to survive the hardships of each day, to fight another day. All the people of Barotseland want is to be left alone to re-establish the sovereignty of their homeland, motherland, fatherland – that is all. Why is it such a big problem to allow this to happen?
NO NEED FOR BAROTSE TO PARTICIPATE IN ZAMBIAN ELECTIONS
After the Barotse National Council’s decision to disengage from the rest of Zambia, there was no need for the Barotse people to participate in Zambia’s elections in January 2015 and again in August 2016. There was really nothing to expect from these elections. The unfortunate thing was that participation in the elections may have had the effect of validating and legitimising them – notwithstanding that the outcome, especially at the presidential level – was obvious to those of us who had not refused to see. People who were expecting a different presidential election result simply refused to see. A corrupt government plants its people in all key places to manipulate and undermine the country’s democratic processes in every way possible. A thief is always one step ahead – and that’s how s/he is able to steal. If you are not a thief yourself, you cannot catch a thief. Our forefathers used to say, “Do not fight a lion unless you are a lion yourself.” In a corrupt system people have no recourse; no matter how innocent they may be, everywhere they go they’ll simply be met with disappointment and well-orchestrated frustrations; if they insist on their rights they are simply locked up and the key is either thrown away or deliberately misplaced.
The only good thing we can say came out of the just-ended elections was the total rejection of the scheme that the BRE and President Chagwa Lungu were trying to conjure up concerning the Barotseland Agreement. This scheme was vigorously canvassed by the BRE on behalf of the Patriotic Front. However, the fact that the people of Barotseland trusted a rival party to the Patriotic Front has sent a very loud and clear message to all concerned: the people of Barotseland do not want to associate themselves with such an ill-conceived scheme which disrespects the wishes of the people of Barotseland. The wishes of the people were clearly contained in the Barotse National Council resolutions. Those resolutions are not vague, they are clear enough for anyone with an average intellect to understand – and they are binding because the Barotse National Council was properly convened after following all the required consultative processes in the land.
However, since the Barotse National Council’s acceptance of Zambia’s termination of the Barotseland Agreement, the Zambian government has been working hard to prevent the people of Barotseland from implementing the Council resolutions. The government’s first strategy has been to weaken and neutralise the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE), which they have so far succeeded to do. This was a body created by the Zambian government so its powers are limited to what their Creator chooses to give it. Through the BRE, the Zambian government has succeeded in propagating the narrative that Zambia is still the Unitary State that it was in 1964. However, the people of Barotseland have seen the light and, day by day, the only reason they continue to appear to comply with this scheme of things is through Zambia’s use (misuse) of its gun powder. Having weakened and neutralised the BRE, the Zambian government’s second strategy is to usher in a watered-down Barotseland Agreement which will allow them to continue ruling the people of Barotseland in perpetuity against their will, while the BRE laughs on the sidelines. But, all these corrupt political machinations will not work because in Barotseland power rests with the people. Anything that sidelines the people is bound to fall flat on its face. This is Imutakwandu, King Lewanika’s legacy – especially this year when we commemorate the centenary of his passing. This is not the year to undermine his integrity. He left us a true form of democracy – a universal kind of democracy which starts and ends at grassroots level. It does not start and end at Namuso; it starts and ends at the village level.
In the meantime, the people of Barotseland ought to remember and believe that the resolutions of the Barotse National Council to, inter alia, accept Zambia’s termination of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 has paved way for a permanent resolution of the political impasse which has dogged the Zambian government for over a half century. By virtue of those resolutions, the people of Barotseland have refused to continue to be victims of their circumstances. They are the ones who have been disenfranchised by the Zambian government, so there is no need to place their hopes and aspirations in the hands of anyone else but themselves. The sooner the people realise that it is all in their own hands to make the difference the sooner the day of salvation shall arrive. So, let’s all rally behind the resolutions of the Barotse National Council of March, 2012 and fight to re-establish our lost glory, the glory of our forefathers. We owe it to them. They left us a country; they left us a nation – where is it now? Surely, if that country could prosper then, it should be much easier for it to prosper now. Look at all the misery that has enveloped the people of Barotseland, as parents fail to dress their children – njenje nji njenje! Barotseland is the poorest part of its neighbourhood on all critical indicators of poverty. It is all in our hands to change things for the better for our beloved country – nobody else. Those of you who still wish to frustrate yourselves further by believing in the imaginary country called Zambia, wait for the next elections – and get dribbled some more, even worse than this time. Each time will be worse than the previous time. When it happens next time, and it surely will unless we get ourselves out of that slavery, do not say I did not warn you. Like today, you’ll still be fighting a wrong war. The right war is to follow the resolutions of the Barotse National Council. In the end, we shall be vindicated by nothing other than that we fought a just war.