The words of wisdom, patriotism and nationalism indeed from the Editor General’s desk, which appeared in Barotseland Post of 3rd September, 2016 in an article entitled “Barotseland must awaken her sense of nationalism” deserve our utmost attention and echoing. Patriotism and Nationalism are more than imperative perspectives of Barotse Change. They are a must do and our life blood by now and I therefore wish to reiterate the same because of the profound significance, solemnity and impetus they transmit and bear in Barotseland nation regarding Barotse Change. It is a reality and theme that should excite and invigorate every minute of every Barotseland citizen. And I do hereby passionately plead, through this piece of writing, with any fellow citizen of mine still belligerent to the reality of our present truth and Barotse Change to introspect and get aboard the independence train to completely New Barotseland.
In his article Mr Sibeta Mundia emphasised that “A patriot will stand and fight because land and territory is under threat, but a nationalist must fight because identity, culture and values are undermined.” This premises my submission in this presentation.
THE ROLE PLAYED BY SILOZI (SEROTSE) LANGUAGE
This is our NATIONAL LANGUAGE and Lingua Franca alongside the OFFICIAL LANGUAGE English supported by the 38+ (actually 47 by October, 1964 official records) ethnic dialects. The role played by language can neither be underestimated nor overemphasised in efficient and effective communication of the Barotse culture, values and national identity in the community of Barotseland, especially so in instilling patriotism and nationalism. No wonder in Zambia today it is a celebrated success that most people can speak Bemba and/or Nyanja, one of the signs to them of their supposed power and dominance above all others in that country. In Mr Mungandi’s patriotic and nationalistic standpoint in the article of 28th August 2016 entitled “FACING REALITY: The ‘One Zambia One Nation’ fallacy put to a reality check” of Barotseland Post I totally agree with him that the ‘One Zambia, One Nation slogan is a fallacy that should be dismissed for it is really a myth now; actually it expired fifty years ago, as soon as it was phrased! So instead of One Zambia, One Nation we espouse our national Slogan LITUNGA IN LYETU while embodying the value of “One Barotseland, One Nation” in the spirit of our current truism of independent Barotseland. IT IS SHEER FOOLISHNESS for anyone to hope against Barotseland autonomy because there is no other truth about it other than the current status quo. The only relationship between Barotseland and ‘Zambia’ now is neighbourliness NOT slogans and the like.
There is need for concerted efforts by all stakeholders in Barotseland to ensure that this is a national priority campaign more than before, henceforth. Let the markets, buses, workplaces, homes and all over make the national language one indeed. In my recent visit to Mongu and Livingstone I were delighted to note that there is growing attention and progress in this regard with a few exceptions at bus ranks, markets and certain buslines especially those heading to Lusaka and Livingstone where our people are still forced to speak the foreign languages reminiscent of black on black colonialism! Much more needs to be done to redress the situation in this regard.
THE ROLE PLAYED BY TECHNOLOGY, MUSIC AND DRAMA
Barotse shoppers need to be commended in this area for having embraced Barotse Technology by playing the soft copies of Lozi books for the restoration of our Silozi jargon and sayings much for the benefit and interest of the lost and disillusioned youths and adults. The entertainment world and art industry need our commendation too for the music and drama we see around embracing Barotseland technology and a Proudly Barotseland Product mindset. More still needs to be done in these areas though. Our local artist should know that their newest releases are ever overdue and the Barotse populace is eagerly awaiting the purchase of the anticipated new products; imagine how beautiful! It is all about using the amalgamated power of patriotism, nationalism and national symbols in the public domain to enhance the ultimate resolve of our Barotse Change; the 2012 BNC Resolutions and UDI Mandate. Music and drama have their own unique way of driving points home. It is not surprising therefore, to see these intellectual property products being widely used in political campaigns, commercial advertisements, worship services and other social gatherings to drive the point home.
GETTING TO ACTION!
Seeing how important the subject of patriotism and nationalism is it becomes mandatory and an open high level classified recommendation and priority that our people, as Barotzish, we start dressing ourselves, our properties and drapery in the national colours in trying to instils these virtues and reality in us and thus raise high the Barotseland National Flag. This is very necessary in removing the veil and plague of identity crisis among our people, replacing them with ‘Tukongote wa mwanaa Nongolo’ Slogan and Proudly Barotzish mindset, in branding our new nation; just because birds of the same feathers (colour, culture, etc.) fly together. We cannot wait for BTG’s official raising of the National Flag for us to individually fly it high somewhere, somehow. You can pledge 2016 onwards to be the special times of these colours’ emphasis or focus in our homestead or workplaces in our own way of choice. Neither can we wait for the issuance of national identity documents (Zibahazo or Situpa, Bukana ya Musipili or Passport) for us to clarify the issues of identity crisis – your natural self is first class bonafide identity you are endowed with in branding yourself and our Barotseland. That is one of the best salient ways, in my view we can manifest the patriotism and nationalism in advocacy here.
The most unfortunate present reality is that our history will have recorded that the greatest tragedy of our period of Barotse Change was not due to the harsh obstruction by the unscrupulous, dishonest, unprincipled, dodgy, corrupt, ruthless and scavenging Zambian politicians, rather the scandalous silence of some good people who are unpatriotic, unnationalistic Barotzish and some of our international fraternity; those who could do something positive regarding the political stalemate between Barotseland and Zambia but have chosen to keep quiet for whatever reasons! Which side are you?
WRAPPING UP OF THE WHOLE MATTER!
By engaging in patriotic and nationalistic activities we are INSTILLING THE MUCH NEEDED NEW THINKING AND MINDSET CHANGE IN THE NEW BAROTSELAND, IN PLACE OF THE BOGGLED SERVITUDE MINDSET. One way you can do this is to promote the use of the national symbols like Silozi language, Barotseland National Flag and its colours and Barotseland National anthem as ringing tones or others. Procrastination is a thief of time. Like Prof. Imenda Sitwala rightly stated in his last article in Barotseland Post dated 18th August, 2016 “There is a difference between being unable to see and refusing to see.” IS IT TRUE THAT YOU CAN’T SEE OR YOU ARE REFUSING TO SEE THAT YOU ARE A LOZI NATIONAL AND BAROTSELAND CITIZEN? CAN IT BE TRUE THAT YOU CAN’T READ ALL AVAILABLE EVIDENCE OR YOU ARE JUST DEFYING THE TRUTH THAT BAROTSELAND AND ZAMBIA ARE TWO SEPARATE COUNTRIES NOW? HOW POSSIBLE CAN IT BE THAT YOU HAVE NEVER HEARD OR YOU ARE REFUSING TO HEAR, LISTEN AND UNDERSTAND WHEN ZAMBIA SAYS “NO LOZI WILL EVER RULE ZAMBIA”? We have never been Zambians really; the truth very much known in the most privileged inner circles in Zambia, only when it suited KK’s deception philosophy and his plan to obliterate our nation and country Barotseland. We cannot afford to continue being profligate about Barotse Change Truth and its ideals, especially so at a late hour like now when the handwriting is clear on both the Barotseland and Zambian walls! The time for rogue citizenship and benefits thereof is numbered up! As for me Barotse Change truth has really liberated me from the many questions I used to ask myself and no one will be able to take away the truth from me.
Tukongote wa Mwanaa Nongolo. Litunga ni lyetu.
With the famous 11th August 2016 election over, the Zambian people are awaking from a deep slumber and questioning themselves as to whether they should continue believing in the ‘One Zambia, One Nation’ fallacy or they should dismiss it for the myth that it really is. More than ever before, it has become so clear that for half a century the people of the fictitious and failed unitary state called Zambia have been coerced and duped to believe a misleading notion that they are ‘one Zambia’ and ‘one Nation’.
The voting pattern which is not at all different from what it has always been, except that it is much more clearer than ever before, has shown beyond doubt that there are at least two Nations here no matter how much we ignore the plain truth, because numbers never lie. In Silozi we say ‘Ha u koni ku buza nja ya muna inge u ibona’ literally meaning you can’t question whether a dog is male or not while looking at it. The fact that ‘one Zambia one nation’ is an erroneous belief is to me as clear and sticks out like the nose on your face. It is myth!
11th August, 2016, Zambian Presidential Election Voting Pattern continue to show Zambia as a divided nation.
BACKGROUND OF THE ‘ONE ZAMBIA ONE NATION MOTTO
Though most Zambians east of the Kafue River do not want to acknowledge this plain truth, it is none the less true that the famous Zambian Motto popularised by Zambia’s first President Dr. Kenneth David Kaunda has its origins in the Barotseland Agreement 1964 (BA’64). It was uplifted from the preamble of the Agreement:
“And whereas it is the wish of the Northern Rhodesia Government and the Litunga of Barotseland, his council and the chiefs and people of Barotseland that Northern Rhodesia should proceed to Independence as one country (Zambia) and that all its peoples should be one Nation.”
The unilateral abrogation of the BA’64 in 1969 by the UNIP Government sets the motto in disarray and absolute quandary, earmarking it for a total and permanent collapse. The BA’64 is the foundation of the motto and like the fate of the house built on the sand without a foundation in the gospel story, the Motto is destined for a total and crushing collapse. The bible says “And the ruin of that house was great” Lk 6:46. The ‘one Zambia one nation’ motto cannot stand without the BA’64 upon which it was founded.
THE TWO NATIONS
It is a clear historical fact that Zambia as we know it today is a cosmetic country created by the Colonial overloads purely for purposes of satisfying there colonial ego, greed and appetite to amass more land, power and control. By 1911, the land mass that has evolved into two British territories namely North Eastern Rhodesia and Barotseland North Western Rhodesia were further Amalgamated to form the jurisdiction styled as Northern Rhodesia for administrative convenience. In 1964 these two territories that Amalgamated into Northern Rhodesia proceeded to Independence as ‘Zambia’ after protracted negotiations with the BA’64, the end result of those long and hard negotiations, as the glue that was to keep them together. Unfortunately the BA’64 was hastily mutilated by the Zambian government of Kenneth Kaunda leading to its unilateral abrogation in 1969. History attests to the numerous effort by the Barotse people to ensure that the BA’64 is adhered to as a way of protecting the amalgamation, but these efforts fell on the deaf ears of their North Eastern counterparts who only wanted the ‘one Zambia one nation’ without the agreement that gave birth to it. Needless to say that in 2012 on 27th March, at a duly constituted Barotse National Council, The Barotse People resolved to accept the unilateral abrogation of the BA’64 rendering the amalgamation of the two Northern Rhodesians null and void.
One Zambia one Nation as a motto was intended to promote the unitary nature of Zambia by protecting the Rights of the Barotse and the allied people groups who are basically a minority within Zambia. With the BA’64 out of the picture, it has been turned into a tool of forced dominion of North Eastern Zambia over South Western Zambia which was (roughly) Barotseland North Western Rhodesia. This can be described as the dictatorship of the majority.
11th AUGUST, 2016 ELECTIONS: ZAMBIA
The elections of the Zambian President, Members of the Zambian Parliament (MPs), Mayors and Council Chairmen as well as Councillors for the Zambian Cities, Municipalities and Districts which took place on 11th August in the year of our Lord 2016 have gone but they will forever remain controversial and highly disputed in the history of Zambia as a nation. Accusations and counter accusation of tribal based voting pattern have been thrown back and forth to each side of the dividing line. A petition is currently before the Zambian Constitutional Court challenging the election of President elect, Edgar Chagwa Lungu alleging massive rigging and electoral malpractices on the part of the winning candidate and party.
The rigging and electoral malpractice allegation notwithstanding, when you compare the amount of work and effort the two leading presidential candidates put in; one is compelled to conclude that the losing candidate put in more effort both in his stronghold and non stronghold areas. Like someone made a comment on social media; that how did ECL expect the people of Dundumwezi to vote for him when he did not campaign there stating that the people of Dundumwezi did not take lightly the issue of being left out on the chance of a free concert by some of Zambia’s most renowned musicians. Clearly all the effort by HH to touch every corner of Zambia during his campaign trail was not good enough while the mild campaign by ECL who did not bother to touch every angle of Zambia leaving out many constituencies throughout the ninety (90) days campaign period was good enough. The answer to this puzzle is the fact that ugly though it may be the two main candidates in the presidential elections were representing two distinct constituencies, two countries as it were and the other (ECL) had an inbuilt majority. It was and will forever be a mission impossible to overturn this inbuilt majority. That is the simple reality!
Someone has said that when an honest man comes face to face with the truth that he hitherto had not known; he either accepts the truth for what it is or ceases to be an honest man. For sure there are numerous fraud allegations in this particular election, but for me the bottom line is that this is a cosmetic country that we are trying to keep together but discarding the very glue that was intended to keep it together.
INTERROGATING THE HALF CENTURY OLD FALLACIOUS MOTTO
The question really is must we continue believing in the myth of ‘one Zambia, one nation’ when all indication are contrary to the notion? I turn on my TV and hear someone say “The elections are now over, let us move on as ‘one Zambia one nation’”. Is it that easy really, when the election results themselves have clearly indicated that we have two distinct nations? Shall we turn a deaf ear and a blind eye to the reality? I am convinced beyond doubt that no matter how many ‘One Zambia One Nations’ we recite in a day (like ‘Hail Marys’) Zambia cannot hold as one nation. Like Professor Sitwala N. Imenda has rightly observed in his recent article;
“... Zambia is doomed; it has no future; it is soon to implode from within - the centre will soon fail to hold.... A country born out of deception cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country in constant denial cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country without capable leaders cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time; a country with dishonest leaders cannot stand the test of time and shall not stand the test of time.”
To sum it all up, ‘One Zambia One Nation’ as a motto is not a correct truism or axiom; because Zambia is not one country anymore (if it has ever been at all) and its people are not one Nation. Let all the stake holders face this reality and allow the peoples of the two Nations exercise each their inalienable Human Right to Self-determination other than to be bottled up within the artificial and cosmetic boundaries created by the colonial masters which no longer serve any purpose.
Barotseland is a Nation. This is what it is, and those who are "Zambianized" by the magic spell of Kenneth Kaunda should get it right from now. Barotseland people are not cowards by not reclaiming their country by way of armed force, but are people endowed with conscience and reason by the Creator, as such opted for a civilized way of peaceful conflict resolutions which of course has time limit frame.
Unlike Zambians, people of Barotseland are Lozis or Ma Lozi with a King as a common heritage. Barotseland people all sing the same Anthem expressively: viz "Barotseland the land of our forefathers." Surprisingly, the Zambia National Anthem reads: "Africa is our own motherland: fashioned with, and blessed by, God's good hand."
This is ridiculous! We do not know of any African nation that sings the same chorus of claiming the whole territory as theirs! Really, Barotse people do not claim Africa or other people's territories. In fact we pray that the people must live happily in their own lands without forced annexation.
Those with knowledge, sense, reason, logic and intelligence are able to discern the difference between Barotseland and Zambia.
However, those drunk with the strong wine of Kaunda's DOCTRINE of "One Zambia, one Nation, one leader, and that leader, Kaunda WAMUYAYAYA: in heaven, God; and on earth, Kenneth Kaunda, and whose philosophy is humanism: where there is man at the centre of everything and this man at the centre of everything was Kaunda himself, believed in whatever Kaunda declared as 'eternal' law: even "Western Province". It is unbelievable that even the wise, scholars, young and old, rich and poor are all drunk with his wine of believing in nonentity 'Western Province!' It is for their indescribable ignorance that they do react and hate us: for our knowledge and separate identity and for the truth we speak!
The Zambian authority is like ancient fallen Babylon, who are now experts at deception, cheating, lying, delusion, beguilement and dishonesty. Therefore, they are very deceitful and insincere in all their dealings. However, Zambia's corrupt ideologies shall never stop Barotseland from being a Nation; even though the flood of Zambia's evil schemes surge from its belly and mouth. Let Zambians know that even if a lie is told a million times, it is still a lie.
Nobody can successfully erase the nation of Barotseland or its history and exterminate the Lozi's existence. Our Nation, "Barotse Nation", shall remain, till the end of time!
The foregoing is an extract from, Afumba Mombotwa’s writings.
Barotseland Administrator General Afumba Mombotwa is a prisoner of conscience, serving a ten year Zambian jail sentence for constituting a transitional Barotseland government in accordance with the Barotse National Council (BNC) mandate of March 2012 that declared the restoration of Barotseland sovereignty. Barotseland’s ill-fated union with Zambia failed to hold after the latter unilaterally abrogated the terms of the 1964 union treaty barely a year after it was signed, while Barotseland officially accepted its abrogation in 2012, setting Barotseland on course to sovereignty, rejecting Zambian annexation.
“..the centre will soon fail to hold, and the reason for this gloomy outlook is something some of us have been singing for years, albeit to a deaf audience – and every election that passes takes the country closer and closer to that doom’s day; to the country’s Armageddon,” Prof.Imenda.
FIGHTING A WRONG WAR
In this short piece I reflect on the state of things as pertaining to the just-ended elections in Zambia, with a specific focus on the presidential elections because that is where national identity lies. If you cannot identify with the position of President for fifty years in a country you call your own, then there is something deadly wrong; if you perpetually get ruled by presidential candidates whom you have rejected in every election, then you’re headed nowhere and the word ‘democracy’ carries no meaning for you.
FACTS OF THE MATTER
All sincere and knowledgeable people know that the founding document of Zambia’s independence as a Unitary State was the Barotseland Agreement 1964. Without that Agreement, there would not have been a country called Zambia as it has been known to the world. As a founding document, the Agreement served as the centre piece of Zambia’s constitution at the beginning of her journey as a sovereign political entity. However, it was the subsequent erasure of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 from Zambia’s constitution which has had tragic consequences for the country by plunging it into a constitutional crisis which has persisted to the present day. Equally important is the point that the expunging of the Agreement from the Zambian constitution also amounted to a flagrant violation of the Barotse people’s human rights and fundamental freedoms. In the blink of an eye, characterised by a stroke of the pen, all the constitutional privileges, protections, rights “and fundamental freedoms of the individual”, which the Barotse people were meant to enjoy by virtue of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 were suddenly totally obliterated. The same person who had signed the Agreement and taken oath to honour and protect it was the same one who engineered its downfall by seeing to it that it was removed from the country’s constitution. I do not know what other people would call this but to me this is blatant dishonesty, betrayal and corruption of the highest order – serious enough to have such a leader successfully tried for high treason and imprisoned for a very long time, or even sentenced to death.
What most people do not understand is that by removing the Barotseland Agreement from Zambia’s constitution, this has meant that one cannot speak about the Agreement and all the rights, privileges and freedoms which it embodied because the action has had the effect of outlawing the Barotse people’s entitlement to those rights, privileges and fundamental freedoms. So, Zambia police and army can then arrest, maim, torture and kill any person who brings up the matter of the Agreement because it is not provided for in the country’s constitution any more. This is what makes the action of the Zambian government a violation of Barotse people’s human rights. The people of Barotseland came into the Union carrying a basket of specified rights, privileges and fundamental freedoms; they did not just walk in carrying nothing. This explains why for 43 years, from 1969 to 2012, the people of Barotseland continuously petitioned the Zambian government to put the Agreement back into the Zambian constitution so that their citizenship as Zambians could once again be restored. In response, the Zambian government consistently rejected this polite request, and reacted violently against the people it defined as enemies of the State. So, inevitably, on 27 March 2012 the people of Barotseland resolved that they could and would no longer continue to honour an imaginary treaty which had fallen away many years previously. Indeed, the Zambian government had stated in written correspondence that as far as it was concerned, the Agreement was stale and was not worth the paper it was written on. Thus, there was no other choice than to accept the termination of the Agreement, and by that action begin the process of formally disengaging from the political farce consummated in1964; but, alas, the Zambian government has reacted to this with lethal force and incessant acts of terrorism against the people of Barotseland. They are now enforcing an imaginary, make-believe Unitary State by force, while professing to be a democratic and Christian country. This is why I say Zambia is doomed; it has no future; it is soon to implode from within – the centre will soon fail to hold. The reason for this gloomy outlook is something some of us have been singing for years, albeit to a deaf audience – and every election that passes takes the country closer and closer to that doom’s day, to the country’s Armageddon. A country born of deception cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country in constant denial cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country without capable leaders cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time; a country with dishonest leaders cannot stand the test of time, and shall not stand the test of time.
REFUSING TO SEE
There is a difference between being unable to see and refusing to see. Many Zambians have refused to see that a country which was born out of dishonesty, deception and fraud cannot stand the test of time; many Zambians have refused to see the injustices meted out consistently and disproportionately onto the people of Barotseland by successive Zambian governments; many Zambians have refused to see that their government has committed (and continues to commit) gross human rights violations against the people of Barotseland by, inter alia, refusing them to re-establish their own sovereign state after terminating the Barotseland Agreement; many Zambians have refused to see the brutality of their government in the face of continued trumped up arrests, torture and killings of the people of Barotseland; many Zambians have refused to see the perpetual servitude faced by the people of Barotseland as a result of having their rights and fundamental freedoms violated by successive Zambian governments.
Surely, if Zambians were the same people as the people of Barotseland, some of them would by now have shared in the excruciating pain perpetually suffered by the people of Barotseland while some would have seen and wiped the people of Barotseland’s tears streaming down their cheeks every day; some would have even heard the people of Barotseland’s cries and comforted them and others still would have listened to their silenced voices and answered them. Many would have by now smelt the people of Barotseland’s despair and given them hope, yet others would have tasted the Barotse people’s sorrow and misery – and lifted their spirits and others more would by now have stepped forward to comfort their haemorrhaging hearts occasioned by the many losses of their loved ones mercilessly butchered by Zambia police and other Zambian security operatives. Others among them would have dressed up the people of Barotseland’s bleeding sores; and some would have shared in their many stories of grief. But, no! This agony, which the people of Barotseland continue to go through daily, means nothing to the Zambians. They are happy and content to carry on; to celebrate their victory; for them it is business as usual while the people of Barotseland continue to gnash and grind their teeth – and hope to survive the hardships of each day, to fight another day. All the people of Barotseland want is to be left alone to re-establish the sovereignty of their homeland, motherland, fatherland – that is all. Why is it such a big problem to allow this to happen?
NO NEED FOR BAROTSE TO PARTICIPATE IN ZAMBIAN ELECTIONS
After the Barotse National Council’s decision to disengage from the rest of Zambia, there was no need for the Barotse people to participate in Zambia’s elections in January 2015 and again in August 2016. There was really nothing to expect from these elections. The unfortunate thing was that participation in the elections may have had the effect of validating and legitimising them – notwithstanding that the outcome, especially at the presidential level – was obvious to those of us who had not refused to see. People who were expecting a different presidential election result simply refused to see. A corrupt government plants its people in all key places to manipulate and undermine the country’s democratic processes in every way possible. A thief is always one step ahead – and that’s how s/he is able to steal. If you are not a thief yourself, you cannot catch a thief. Our forefathers used to say, “Do not fight a lion unless you are a lion yourself.” In a corrupt system people have no recourse; no matter how innocent they may be, everywhere they go they’ll simply be met with disappointment and well-orchestrated frustrations; if they insist on their rights they are simply locked up and the key is either thrown away or deliberately misplaced.
The only good thing we can say came out of the just-ended elections was the total rejection of the scheme that the BRE and President Chagwa Lungu were trying to conjure up concerning the Barotseland Agreement. This scheme was vigorously canvassed by the BRE on behalf of the Patriotic Front. However, the fact that the people of Barotseland trusted a rival party to the Patriotic Front has sent a very loud and clear message to all concerned: the people of Barotseland do not want to associate themselves with such an ill-conceived scheme which disrespects the wishes of the people of Barotseland. The wishes of the people were clearly contained in the Barotse National Council resolutions. Those resolutions are not vague, they are clear enough for anyone with an average intellect to understand – and they are binding because the Barotse National Council was properly convened after following all the required consultative processes in the land.
However, since the Barotse National Council’s acceptance of Zambia’s termination of the Barotseland Agreement, the Zambian government has been working hard to prevent the people of Barotseland from implementing the Council resolutions. The government’s first strategy has been to weaken and neutralise the Barotse Royal Establishment (BRE), which they have so far succeeded to do. This was a body created by the Zambian government so its powers are limited to what their Creator chooses to give it. Through the BRE, the Zambian government has succeeded in propagating the narrative that Zambia is still the Unitary State that it was in 1964. However, the people of Barotseland have seen the light and, day by day, the only reason they continue to appear to comply with this scheme of things is through Zambia’s use (misuse) of its gun powder. Having weakened and neutralised the BRE, the Zambian government’s second strategy is to usher in a watered-down Barotseland Agreement which will allow them to continue ruling the people of Barotseland in perpetuity against their will, while the BRE laughs on the sidelines. But, all these corrupt political machinations will not work because in Barotseland power rests with the people. Anything that sidelines the people is bound to fall flat on its face. This is Imutakwandu, King Lewanika’s legacy – especially this year when we commemorate the centenary of his passing. This is not the year to undermine his integrity. He left us a true form of democracy – a universal kind of democracy which starts and ends at grassroots level. It does not start and end at Namuso; it starts and ends at the village level.
In the meantime, the people of Barotseland ought to remember and believe that the resolutions of the Barotse National Council to, inter alia, accept Zambia’s termination of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 has paved way for a permanent resolution of the political impasse which has dogged the Zambian government for over a half century. By virtue of those resolutions, the people of Barotseland have refused to continue to be victims of their circumstances. They are the ones who have been disenfranchised by the Zambian government, so there is no need to place their hopes and aspirations in the hands of anyone else but themselves. The sooner the people realise that it is all in their own hands to make the difference the sooner the day of salvation shall arrive. So, let’s all rally behind the resolutions of the Barotse National Council of March, 2012 and fight to re-establish our lost glory, the glory of our forefathers. We owe it to them. They left us a country; they left us a nation – where is it now? Surely, if that country could prosper then, it should be much easier for it to prosper now. Look at all the misery that has enveloped the people of Barotseland, as parents fail to dress their children – njenje nji njenje! Barotseland is the poorest part of its neighbourhood on all critical indicators of poverty. It is all in our hands to change things for the better for our beloved country – nobody else. Those of you who still wish to frustrate yourselves further by believing in the imaginary country called Zambia, wait for the next elections – and get dribbled some more, even worse than this time. Each time will be worse than the previous time. When it happens next time, and it surely will unless we get ourselves out of that slavery, do not say I did not warn you. Like today, you’ll still be fighting a wrong war. The right war is to follow the resolutions of the Barotse National Council. In the end, we shall be vindicated by nothing other than that we fought a just war.
The month of August 2016 was set aside by our Royal Barotseland Government to commemorate the wonderful work of King Lewanika. However, the recorded history of Barotseland kingdom begins with Queen Mwambwa as the founder of the Lozi (Barotse) Kingdom. This is still in full cognisance of the fact that the Barotseland nation, state and tradition dates from antiquity and is only more lucid from Queen Mwambwa as the first traceable Litunga, especially so by name and title. Since her day to date 2016 (King Lubosi Imwiko II) Barotseland Kingdom has a historic record of twenty four (24) Litungas. The common features among all the Litungas, with few exceptions, are that each has had a period of reign, administrative capital, administrative council and shrines among others. As for Mwambwa for instance, she built her capital at Sifuluti Village, located in the present day Kalabo District of Barotseland with her royal shrine known as Sangaulu located in the Lukulu District also of Royal Barotseland Kingdom.
From the royal reign progressions of the Barotseland Litungas allow me dear reader to focus my consideration only on three, to underscore certain commitments and achievements consistent with the status quo of our Barotse Change and certain imperatives of the modern Royal Barotseland nation and state, in the subsequent paragraphs accordingly. Interestingly, King Lubosi Lewanika and his namesakes also share the month of February as either a birthday or deathday month, with Mbikusita Lewanika II having been born and died in the same month of February; 03/02/1905 and 07/02/1977 respectively!
LITUNGA NO. 17: KING LUBOSI LEWANIKA (1878 – 1916)
The month of August 2016 was set aside by our Royal Barotseland Government to commemorate the wonderful work of King Lewanika: the famous “Liwanika”, “Tautona”, “Lion King”, The Litunga, The Earth, as just few of the litumo or praise names given to the King, Litunga of Barotseland, Lubosi Lewanika, during his reign. This year on 4th February, 2016 marked the centennial of his death and the intended beginning of a yearlong commemoration of his extraordinary life and influence on the Barotseland and the world, as a result of his reign from 1878 to 1916 in two regime phases as 1878 – 1884 and 1885 – 1916 intermittently.
Some of his key achievements include abolishment of slavery on 16th July, 1906, especially in his territory of Barotseland. This means that our near 50 years of servitude to Zambia was a serious antagonism to King Lewanika’s legacy and would have halted it if he could be resurrected. His signing of the Ware Concession on 27th June, 1889 and the signing of the Lochner Concession on 26th June, 1890 both present him with international accolades, as a successful native and international politician and leader. Additionally, he was a scholarly, literate and well informed individual and King. Because of his work Barotseland was recognised as a nation state already during the partition or scramble for Africa – the land we have reclaimed from the failed unitary state of Zambia.
LITUNGA NO. 21: KING MWANAWINA LEWANIKA III, KBE (1948 – 1968)
King Mwanawina Lewanika III, KBE ruled from 1948 to 1968 in Barotseland. Among other achievements he was knighted by the British in 1959, He was educated at PMS Missionary School in Barotseland, Lovedale College, South Africa, and University of Cape town in South Africa and he was pressured into signing the Barotseland Agreement, 1964 which attempted to absorb Barotseland by Northern Rhodesia to pave way for the creation of the so called 'Republic of Zambia'. Barotseland national memory bank informs us that King Lewanika had warned us then that because of the forced signing of the BA’64 we would suffer SUBJECTION UNDER FIVE ZAMBIAN PRESIDENTS (REGIMES) then cry out for our independence! However, what was not foretold is the other side of the coin – how many Barotseland Kings would consequently rule Barotseland Kingdom before the realisation of the ultimate of Barotse Change?
If this is something to seriously go by then we have a missing link somehow and it may be unrealistic for us to expect the current Litunga Edwin Lubosi to fulfil in totality the 2012 BNC Resolutions all the way, especially the restoration of our Royalty and transformation of the BRE back to BRA in the transition to completely free Barotseland.
LITUNGA NO. 22: KING MBIKUSITA LEWANIKA II (1968 – 1977)
King Mbikusita Lewanika II was born on 3rd February, 1905 in Lealui and died 7th February 1977. He ruled Royal Barotseland kingdom from 1968 to 1977. He received education from Barotse National School, University of Cape town South Africa, and University of Wales at Aberystwith. He ascended to the throne on 15th December, 1968, and died in 1977. His capital was Lealui. Among many of his achievements he was the Founding President General of the Northern Rhodesia African Congress and African freedom movements. Additionally, he was Founder President of the Mines African Staff Association, a student at the University College of Wales at Swansea, a Member of Parliament of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and a facilitator for domestic and foreign higher education for hundreds of Zambians and Barotse individuals. He also served as a Parliamentary Secretary in Ministry of External Affair of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the 1960s.
As a Litunga and like King Ilute Yeta IV, King Mbikusita Lewanika II lived in the heat of the disputed abortive Zambiaship and hence their lives were curtailed by the enemies of Barotseland.
BAROTSELAND LITUNGAS FROM 1964 TO 2012:
1. HRH SIR MWANAWINA LEWANIKA III,K.B.E
2. HRH Mbikusita Lewanika
3. HRH Ilute Yeta IV
4. HRH Imwiko Lubosi
5. Missing Link: _____? (BRE to BRA era). Is this for King Lubosi Imwiko II or another successor Barotse King if I may ask? Otherwise, let His Royal Highness avail himself to the task he started and prevail. BRE needs to get back to its pre-Zambian eminence as Barotse Royal Authority (BRA) and revise his Royal CV conclusively.
ZAMBIAN PRESIDENTS FROM 1964 TO 2012:
1. DR. KENNETH DAVID KAUNDA.
2. Mr. F.T.J. Chiluba.
3. Mr. Levy P. Mwanawasa.
4. Mr Rupiah B. Banda.
5. Mr. Michael C. Sata (BNC 2012 era)
Can it be that in King Lewanika's prophecy he may be the antecedent to the Litunga who will balance off the equation with the Zambian side leadership seriation! His current embattledness and leadership style could be a serious indictment on him and indication that either he was/is misplacement over us or has his term of office long expired by abdication or other means!
Looking at the royal CVs of the three Lewanikas one can see that the Litungas were indeed great educationists, successful politicians in their own right, visionary leaders, embraced great family values and honoured nationalists, traditionalists committed to nurturing Barotseland for her prosperity and prominence above self-glory.
It is worth noting that our incumbent Litunga already scored a resounding success by having sanctioned and facilitated the 2012 BNC which achievement has gone well in history and his personal Royal CV. Notwithstanding, his recent political dealings with Zambian President to try and thwart our UDI Mandate have captured a negative insert in his Royal CV. However, it is not too late and there is still room enough for His Royal Highness Litunga Lubosi to amend his ways, enhance the Barotseland heritage so distorted thus far and relive the Lewanika legacies; much so to resonate with his namesake King Lubosi Lewanika’s foot steps in his own right but for our country. These legacies cannot and will never be erased from our history by anybody or king of Barotseland and we are where we are today because of the incremental gains to our national heritage by the Litungas who have been before, from time immemorial.
Muyoyange wino wino!
Lubosi Imwiko II, the embattled Litunga of Barotseland, was last week reprimanded by key members of his royal family, the princes and princesses (District Chiefs) of Barotseland at a secret ‘Litunga-in-Council’ meeting he abruptly called to be held in Lusaka, unknown to them, to meet the Zambian president Edgar Lungu who did not even turn up.
‘PEOPLE ARE THE FINAL AUTHORITY IN BAROTSELAND’
According to a detailed report availed to the Barotseland Post on Friday, the Litunga-in-council is reported to have also chided Lubosi, reminding him to bear in mind that the ‘people’ were the final authority in Barotseland. This was after Lubosi took the uncouth step of summoning all the royals (Malena baLikiliti) to what he described as ‘an urgent’ meeting in Zambia’s capital of Lusaka with outgoing president Edgar Lungu.
Fearing that something dramatic or tragic was to happen, all the ‘Malena’ (royals) left their traditional capitals in a hurry for Lusaka without any idea of what they would find there. They all traveled ‘post-haste’ to Lusaka, while those who could not travel sent their representatives.
To their great disappointment, however, upon arrival in Lusaka they discovered that Zambia’s outgoing president Lungu was nowhere in Lusaka, and only to see him later on national television at various venues of the Copperbelt and Central provinces dancing to ‘dununa reverse’, Patriotic Front (PF)’s latest political campaign craze, with various party womenfolk, in the likes of Mumbi Phiri, the deputy Secretary General of the PF.
Disgusted by this turn of events, the reigning princes, princesses and representatives of the District Royal Courts told Lubosi they could still meet as a family if Lungu was not ready to meet with them. Unlike in the regions of Zambia, in Barotseland all reigning heads of the District Royal Court, except for the princesses, are substantive heirs to the Litungaship of Barotseland in their own right should the people of Barotseland say so at any time. Mbuyu-wa-Mwambwa, the last queen over Barotseland, abdicated the throne and established the culture of exclusive male Litungaship (Kingship) in Barotseland.
Lubosi Imwiko himself was a Reigning Prince (District Chief) in Lukulu before the then ruling MMD Zambian government broke Barotse cultural norms, according to some Barotse school of thought, and irregularly enthroned him as Litunga of Barotseland. The embattled Litunga has, however, lately been accused of having switched allegiance to Edgar Lungu and his ruling Patriotic Front party for personal profit. This alliance is also reported to include Lubosi’s personal friend, former MMD Party and 4th Republican President Rupiah Banda.
At the meeting, the frustrated Royalty demanded to know from Lubosi why they had been summoned to Lusaka, a foreign land, without any agenda of what they would be discussing with Lungu. They wished to know from Lubosi what their coming to Lusaka was all about, at which point the embattled Litunga surprised them by first engaging them in a ‘general’ talk of some sort. He is then reported to have turned round his remarks to declare how he was like a lion that feared nothing and no man, and that he was always single minded.
Lubosi is further reported to have declared that it was important for Barotseland to support Lungu because he (Lungu) genuinely wanted to ‘help’ Barotseland become free from Zambia now that the two former protectorates of Britain could no longer continue to exist as a union. Furthermore, Lubosi is said to have informed them that, as leaders of Barotseland, they could do this by helping Lungu win re-election for the Presidency of Zambia due next week, August 11.
As is the Lozi custom at such meetings, the reigning princes and princesses are all reported to have listened patiently until Lubosi was done. Then ‘Senior Chief’ Amukena II who is Crown Prince Makweti Isiteketo, son of the late ‘Senior Chief’ Amukena I, Isiteketo Lewanika, opened the candid discussion asking Lubosi pointedly if he saw nothing wrong with all of them coming to Lusaka for a meeting that never took place. Crown Prince Isiteketo is considered an elder brother to Lubosi, since in Barotseland culture there exists no ‘cousins’, ‘nephews’ or ‘nieces’. Only brother, sister, mother, father and son or daughter exists.
Isiteketo is the current Reigning Prince in Kaoma at the Naliele kuta (royal court) and he asked Lubosi, with the authority of an elder brother if he (Lubosi) saw nothing wrong with summoning all of them to Lusaka for what effectively was a failed meeting with Lungu, and that since Lubosi did not give them any agenda, were they to conclude that he (Lubosi) and Lungu were collectively trying to usurp the powers of the Barotse people.
“If this was a traditional ‘Litunga in Council’ which, by custom is always held in Limulunga and not on foreign soil, then we should have been informed of the agenda well in advance. What are you afraid of?” Crown Prince Amukena demanded. In reply, Lubosi is reported to have waffled about Lusaka being ‘central’ and ‘convenient’ since they were coming to meet Zambia’s president Edgar Lungu.
It is, however, reported that Lubosi’s explanation was unaccepted with the legendary Mulena-Mukwae Mboanjikana (Princess Kandundu, daughter of Litunga Yeta III) of Libonda kuta wondering why Lubosi should have made her travel hundreds of kilometers on bumpy roads for nothing.
“Kanti kiñi haulatanga kweza lika kamoile pilu yahao, isi kamulao? Ni mukopano woo kanti kiñi hamuutisize kwanu kwa naha isili isi kuluna?” Mukwae Mboanjikana asked, chiding Lubosi for deliberately flouting Lozi cultural norms in preference for his irregular and unlawful desires. She is then said to have reminded Lubosi of how she essentially groomed him as a baby and young prince growing up, and therefore, he should have at least accorded her due consideration as an elderly woman, if he did not wish to respect the rest on account of their younger age. “Neba usafi babañwi ba likute, kakuli ki banana kuwena, kono na waswanela kunifa likute kakuli nikuzwisa kwahule. Uhupule fonenikupepelanga kwa mukokoto waka onakwa, wena uli kikacenu? Cwale ukona cwani kulumbambalisa, inge tupelesa, ku taalala naha yamina ye butelele kuzwa Bulozi kutowa kwanu ni kuto fumana kuli yoo yelutezi niyena wile kuzahae?”
At that point, Lubosi reportedly tried to calm them by saying that in fact, Lungu had actually wanted to personally discuss with them the way forward over the Barotseland ‘question’, which statement just increased the anxiety and anger of the assembled Royalty instead.
Another Reigning Princess Mulena-Mukwae Mboanjikana is reported to have asked Lubosi why he had to call their meeting in Lusaka and not on the soil of their forefathers. She is said to have described the decision to call them all to Lusaka as ‘outrageous’ and very ‘disrespectful’ as she wondered why Lubosi was behaving in that manner.
She reportedly further reminded him that Barotseland was no ‘animal farm’ but a nation state that had existed long before the creation of Northern Rhodesia, which graduated into the now failed ‘unitary’ state of Zambia.
Seeing that his ‘aunties’ and ‘uncles’ were now on ‘familiar’ territory, ‘Senior Chief’ Inyambo the II (Reigning Prince Lubasi Yeta, son of late Litunga Ilute Yeta IV) is reported to have stepped into the debate and observed that Barotseland was at the moment in no state to discuss important matters with ‘anybody’ as all District Royal courts were without key Indunas and even less salaried staff members. Mulena Inyambo was the youngest royal member in the gathering, except those standing in for absent royalty.
Mulena Inyambo was reportedly supported by ‘Senior Chief’ Amukena already described above. Others reported to have supported him were: ‘Senior Chief’ Anañanga who is Reigning Prince at Lukulu as Anañanga Imwiko (Lubosi’s blood brother), the representatives from the Nalolo kuta in the person of the acting Sambi, where Litunga-la-Mboela (Princess Mbuyu Imwiko, blood sister of the embattled Litunga) is the reigning royalty, and the representatives from Shangombo-Kaunga Mashi kuta where ‘Senior Chief’ Lukama (Reigning Prince Meebelo Mutukwa, son of Prince Lukama Wamuñungo Litia) is the reigning royalty and was indisposed. He was represented by his younger brother.
Accordingly, they all agreed that with nearly all positions vacant or filled by people in an acting capacity, including that of the Ngambela (Prime minister) of Barotseland and the Natamoyo (Minister in charge of Justice and Mercy), it meant that the Barotse Royal 'Authority' has no mandate to negotiate on behalf of anybody.
It was their call, and they wanted Lubosi to respond. However, Lubosi is reported to have said nothing, and for a long time just sat and brooded, staring vacantly into space until Senior Chief Amukena reportedly broke the silence, “Luna kanti lwiile! Kono uyomubulelela yena mulikana hao yoo kuli luna halulikuba! Mi hana tukelo yakulufetaula-fetaula inge litapi zefapani,” as he advised Lubosi to go and explain to his new found friend Lungu that they were no ‘fools’ who he could turn around like fish on a frying pan.
With that strong closing remark, they all reportedly trooped out, leaving Lubosi still staring blankly into space, without drinking anything offered by the Zambian government. They are also reported to have turned down government arranged accommodation.
It is strongly believed that many past Barotseland leaders died mysteriously after accepting similar government conveniences, a now widely suspected state instigated method of eliminating perceived political opponents.