The following is a compilation by Afumba Mombotwa, Royal Barotseland Government, and was sent to the United Nations, for the world’s information and for the sons and daughters of Barotseland to know the reasons why Barotseland and Zambia will never be one nation.
The compilation advances 100 reasons why Barotseland and Zambia can never and will never be one nation.
They also illustrate that there is no union or relationship between them other than that of being neighbours forever, and that this fact must be easily understood by all sane people.
1. Nobody can refute the territorial integrity of Barotseland in the world.
2. Barotseland is an organic nation.
3. Barotzish did not renounce their nationality in 1964.
4. Barotseland and Zambia did not confederate.
5. Nobody can claim anything under an Agreement that is not in force.
6. The Barotzis are not made by a constitution. The constitution was made by man and not man by the constitution. So we have already rejected the Zambian constitution.
7. The Litunga (King) cannot be a subject of his subjects viz Councillors/ MPs.
8. Britain had no moral right to transfer Barotseland into the hands of a novice state (Zambia).
9. When Sir Mwanawina signed the Agreement, he represented the Nation of Barotseland, whereas Mr Kaunda represented his Government (temporal authority) so we have nothing to do with the successor governments.
10. Any Agreement does not offer rights to the third party.
11. The relationship of Britain and Barotseland was based on treaties signed, but when the treaties were terminated, also the relationship came to an end; similarly, the relationship between Barotseland and Zambia came to an end when Barotseland Agreement 1964 was terminated.
12. Zambia is occupying Barotseland illegally.
13. The Barotzish did not surrender their sovereignty to any state ever since.
14. Mr Kaunda signed Barotseland Agreement 1964 when he was a Malawian citizen until 1970 when he renounced his Malawian Nationality. Hence, he acted as an imposter; thus whatever he did to us is null and void.
15. The law of Zambia does not recognise Barotseland as a state party, but as a vassal state to it. This causes animosity.
16. We cannot debate our identity, self-determination and our right to our country.
17. There is nothing that gives Zambia any right to rule Barotseland apart from military hardware.
18. Nobody can convince us on how and when we became Zambians since the law proves the contrary.
19. The British tried to merge or compromise the two antithetical political systems viz republic and monarchy. This causes antagonism.
20. No law on earth is against liberty and self-rule.
21. No nation has the right to swallow another.
22. Independence is neither crime nor misdemeanour.
23. In default of the union Act, there is no law to prove that Barotseland and Zambia were politically united.
24. That which is made contrary to law is deemed not to have been done at all or it is illegal.
25. Barotseland is not a legal part of Zambia. The President of Zambia simply inherited the obligations of her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain (coloniser). So Zambia is a quasi-coloniser or protector of Barotseland.
26. Barotseland was treated like a serf since 1964 to date.
27. The law stipulates that the Agreement that has not entered into force is not legally binding, thus we have nothing to do with the Agreement and Zambia.
28. We stake a claim to Barotseland; nobody else can claim our territory.
29. Zambia wants to rely on the law of succession to rule Barotseland.
30. The Barotseland question requires the applicability of international law, justice and law of Agreements and Human Rights law and not laws of Zambia or personal opinions.
31. Unity, cohesion or relationship cannot be maintained by the barrel of the gun.
32. Colonisers can build schools, hospitals and roads, but that does not change their character and nature, they still remain colonisers.
33. We are fed up of being tormented, dominated and incarcerated by dishonest, unscrupulous and treacherous people (Zambia).
34. Mr Kaunda said “we cannot have a Nation within a Nation”; equally we cannot cease to be a Nation because of an ill-bred mortal being who does not want us to be.
35. As Barotzish, we cannot lose our nation on account of demagogic ideologies of “tiyende pamodzi.”
36. Zambia’s political propagandas and promises effected by security officers can never legitimize Zambia’s illegal occupation of Barotseland.
37. Mr Kaunda declared that the “Litunga is simply a chief (Induna) and Mr Sata resounded the same words; no sane Barotse person could be pleased with this state of affairs. This is an explicit testimony of hegemonic dominance.
38. Zambians are for the republic whereas Barotzis are for the Kingdom; two disparate systems cannot co-exist in a designed territory.
39. The essence for seeking for protection of Barotseland by King Lewanika was to preserve the territory for the future generations of which we are.
40. No country can sign a treaty with it-self.
41. Barotseland and Zambia cannot be one; these are two foreign countries.
42. Any developmental project that may appear in Barotseland is donor funded, this being the case; we ought to meet donors directly without any intermediary ourselves.
43. We have the ability, the intellect and knowledge to develop our country Barotseland.
44. The Barotzis do not enjoy the freedom of assembly and expression under the colonization of Zambia.
45. The Zambia Police shall continue assassinating people of Barotseland, if the yoke of Zambian hegemonic is not broken in Barotseland.
46. The Barotzis have never enjoyed their peace of mind since 1964.
47. The abrogation of the Agreement releases Zambia of her responsibility arising from treaty obligations.
48. That which is not in conformity with law is illegal. N.B. there is no legal tie between Barotseland and Zambia.
49. Mr Kaunda took away all the powers of the Litunga (King) he had without consent of the people viz another testimony of domination.
50. There will be no harmony as long as aliens want to have control of our land or rather take it away.
51. The social and political struggle to reconstruct our nation out of various ethnic groups of Barotseland and to liberate Barotseland from Zambian oppression is a right.
52. We cannot afford to continue celebrating the colonization of Barotseland by Zambia because it is a mental torture.
53. Barotseland was not a colony of Britain; so there is no justifiable reason for her to be colonised by a fellow African Nation.
54. What the British did not obtain by conquest Zambia want to possess by artifice.
55. Barotseland has been engaged in struggle against hegemonic dominance since 1965, hence she deserves freedom now.
56. The demise of white colonization did not signal the end of domination and subjugation of weaker by the stronger in Africa; hence Mr Sata President of Zambia told the Barotse Activists at State House “you are in a weaker position.”
57. The Agreement was terminated; we cannot continue to associate ourselves with Zambia anymore.
58. Our relation was artificial or not real and the condominium agreement we entered into has been rejected.
59. West Nyasa (Northern Rhodesia) Zambia was a British crown colony whereas Barotseland was a British Protectorate; the two are not compatible.
60. Zambian Government has been meddling in the internal affairs and interfering in the cultural and traditional activities of Barotseland; that is something detestable.
61. Legal axiom states “a thing is made and destroyed by one and the same means” viz Mr Kaunda made the relation and the same Mr Kaunda destroyed it; so things have fallen apart.
62. Barotseland as a Nation should enjoy the rights accorded to other nations.
63. Our lives as Barotzis are in danger and our community is likely to face extinction as soldiers have been ordered to kill those they identify as Lozi language speakers.
64. Barotzis are charged with treason even for talking about their history.
65. Barotseland is cited to be backward in terms of development by Zambia Central Statistical Office, and our country has been impoverished by design.
66. If we are the owners of Barotseland and everything in it, then we must be the ones in-charge of our resources, control and manage it without restraint.
67. We are fed up with divide and rule tactics of Zambian Governments where a dog is set to eat another dog.
68. The Barotse plains or Lealui has been declared a world heritage site viz a place of historical and cultural importance; for this reason Barotseland cannot be swallowed but be revived.
69. There is absolutely nothing that compels or binds Barotseland to Zambia.
70. President Kaunda arrested and detained Barotzis; President Banda’s Government did not only arrest but killed; President Sata found it fit to declare war and ordered soldiers to kill as did Mr Banda. There seem to be a deliberate policy worse than that of white colonialism.
71. We are treated as rebels and criminals by Zambian Government for the knowledge of our rights.
72. The Zambian Constitution Review Commission 2003 stated that “Zambian Government derives its authority over Barotseland from the Barotseland Agreement 1964” further stated; failing to honour the Barotseland Agreement raises a question as to where the Zambian Government derives its authority from.
73. We want to be in a position where we can face Zambia on the atrocities she has committed; because they have been arrogantly saying “you cannot bite the finger that feeds you”.
74. The Zambia Government has already betrayed us; we don’t want the Rwandan situation to occur.
75. Africa currently uses the principle of “uti possideto” viz the permanence of inherited colonial frontiers safe-guarding existing boundaries; this being so, we too have to guard our boundaries.
76. We are against forced assimilation.
77. After dissolution of the federation, there could be no Zambia in Malawi; similarly after termination of the Agreement we could have no Barotseland in Zambia only senseless people can condone that.
78. Since the original idea that intended to preserve Barotseland’s autonomy within Zambia was curtailed, this time we cannot dream of fresh Agreements to be an enclave that would be as good as taking one step forward and one step backwards.
79. By advocating for inclusion of the Agreement in the Zambian constitution; some Barotzish were begging to be part of Zambia; which is a clear testimony that they have realised that they were excluded.
80. Administering a territory is not synonymous with unification. Period.
81. We wish to be conducting memorial services freely for our beloved ones who were butchered by Zambia.
82. No part of Barotseland was ceded to any country by consent of her inhabitants.
83. Our national anthem still remains “Barotseland is the land of our forefathers" and not anything else.
84. It is contrary to Human Rights norms for Barotseland to continue being colonised.
85. Barotseland was not destined to be ruled or governed by aliens (Zambians).
86. We are a country with an African identity.
87. The situation of Barotseland and her people demands social justice for peace to prevail.
88. The Barotzis have been trying to be realistic with their state of affairs; whereas Zambians are idealistic and full of injustice.
89. If trying to bring two disparate nations of Barotseland and Zambia to make one was an experiment, then the observation of killing and declaration of war conclude that the desired transformation can never take place.
90. The Barotzis cannot be transformed into anything else (c.f. Musasa Musiwa’s Lozi song) just as paraffin and water cannot mix though both are liquids.
91. The applicability of the right to self-determination cannot be limited to cases of Africa struggling against white rule.
92. The building block upon which Zambia was constructed and extended to Barotseland was deceit, lies, treachery, delusion, dishonest and unfaithfulness.
93. Sometimes a rider may feed a horse nicely and fatten it, and wash it, but that does not change situation of a rider and a horse.
94. Of all the British Protectorates only Barotseland was cast into the den of Zambians to be devoured by her.
95. It is a deliberate policy that Barotzis have to be arrested and detained without any offence and then released on Nolle Prosecui so that they cannot be compensated.
96. We are in a situation where Judges are suspended if they dispense justice fairly.
97. After killing people in Barotseland nobody in Zambia ever thought of reconciliation or redress instead people of Barotseland were teased with Chongwe Commission, an exercise in futility.
98. We are not tamed as animals even if we were, when a tamed animal revert to its natural habitat or jungle life, nothing is wrong; it is in order.
99. We are human beings with dignity, we deserve to be respected and not taken for granted or for a cheap commodity.
100. Our people could not shed blood and die in vain if what they died for cannot be accomplished. They lost lives by the order of the diabolic government.
The much anticipated date and event of Zambian Tripartite elections is fast approaching and will soon be indelibly celebrated as one of the pages of the Zambian democracy history. Of course the final analysis can only wait for the appropriate time after the casting of votes by voters. The day will come and be gone, leaving behind souls that will either be happy with the outcome, dismayed or indifferent to all the outcome of the tripartite elections.
THE BIG QUESTION FOR EVERY BAROTSELAND CITIZEN AT HOME AND DIASPORA: WHICH SIDE OF HISTORY ARE YOU GOING TO BE PART OF THIS EXERCISE?
Of course, to the Zambian political community all minds now focus on the forthcoming general elections of 2016, with the electioneering period having commenced on 16th May, 2016 running up to the last day the 11th August, 2016. The losers in January 2015 presidential by-elections hope to do better while winning PF wishes to maintain power in government, using the same election wiles or other means. On the other hand the Zambian electorate looks forward to the blissful days of enjoying the government service deliverables as will be manifestoed during the campaign season to elections. However, it is not in the best interest of this article for me to articulate much on the implications of all this on the indigenous Zambian environment and will thus do well to rest all discourses on the subject matter with the competent Zambian native analysts. My concern is sharing my views with my dear fellow Barotseland citizens.
We have said it over and over again through this beloved medium of communication that “resistance to change is a fact of human nature.” Most of our events are characterized by this phenomenon. Our own change agenda is no exception. However, it becomes quite unfortunate when people overstay at one transition point or refuse to resonate with change altogether. Without necessarily disparaging our voting rights a number of Barotzis voted in January 2015 hopefully to usher UPND into office “for a better united Zambia” as it were. Unfortunately all hopes and dreams were shuttered when the final result indicated otherwise. Actually, in my own analysis, the only close to genuine election results were the 1991 era. Before and after that they have always been doctored. This Zambian history may repeat itself this time and much more seriously. Besides all this the worst casualties will be the mistakenly hopeful Barotzish. What I also believe in strongly is that this is time now for all of us to ascertain our true identity by not participating in the Zambian fake elections. I say so because of the following reasons:
1. You and me are Barotseland citizens and as such to vote on 11th August, 2016 is to meddle in the affairs of another country our neighbouring Zambia. It is high time we seriously started to mind our own business as Barotseland. There is glaring truth that some of our people are still fulltime Zambian partisans, in kind or financially thereby failing to cross over our Barotse Change from outright resistance, through partial resistance to complete acceptance in order to finally assimilate into our new Barotseland lifestyle. The lesson however, is, unless we seriously come to terms with our present truth and embrace our dear change accordingly we will keep electioneering in Zambia in search for answers which God has long provisioned back home in Barotseland, in our quest for freedom of independence, original statehood and nationhood, as opposed to our former 50 years of freedom of dependence on Zambia.
2. Secondly, it is an opportunity for us to send a message of solidarity in honour of our incarcerated heroes and leaders at Mwembeshi maximum Zambian state prison. Honestly, how can a true Mulozi vote for a power that will only come in to continue treading under feet our human right of self-determination! We have seen this happen in the last 50 years of Zambian independence. Regardless of changes in governments the result has always been the same for Barotseland. In fact, I will not be surprised if we witness a repeat of State of emergency again, going by the current trends in Zambia, which thing should not affect us anyway. And so, even their next government after August, given chance will continue to be repressive toward us. I hope the message should stand out clearly that Barotseland is a NO GO AREA FOR ZAMBIAN POLITICAL ELECTIONEERS this year; only at own risk. Otherwise, why should Zambian politicians be allowed to campaign in our country when our own local politicians do not have the freedom to do so and share information with us free like on 26th -27th March, 2012? We have the reason to say NO and regard any such as trespasses into Barotseland.
3. I find it quite perturbing that outsiders know the truth about our Change agenda and yet some Barotse citizens still ignore or flirt away their true identity, in the name of love, peace and unity the very virtues that Zambia is abusing for self-aggrandizement. I hope we will take this hard lesson seriously and rise up to the occasion and take up the challenge in waiting for us ahead, as a new nation. We need to assert our true identity wherever we are; in whatever we are and exude the pride and confidence embodied in our reclaimed citizenship and statehood.
4. We have our own great events coming soon worthy our noting. For instance, in August, 2016 we have the Centenary Celebration of the King Lewanika legacy. In my view, this is what should absorb all our energies as Barotseland leaders and citizens at large. This is one event calling for our patriotism again and all should be geared to participate in one way or another.
While some of our people are not yet complying, it is worth taking advantage of this platform to acknowledge the many that are conforming in many ways to our very dear cause of total independence from Zambia. WE NEED TO BE PROUDLY BAROTSELAND CITIZENS AS NOBODY ELSE CAN DO IT FOR US. ARE YOU? FOR ME TO LIVE IT IS BECAUSE IAM A LOZI AND TO DIE IT’S BECAUSE OF WHO IAM, THAT ‘S MY MOTTO, UNTIL I SEE THE FULFILMENT OF ROMANS 17:26 “And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation. In God’s timetable our day of total freedom and independence is certain and coming, to dwell in the bounds of our habitation BAROTSELAND fasi la bo ndataluna!
Muyoyange, mi kozo shangwe.
Following some media reports published recently concerning Barotseland and the now defunct BA’64 one can perceive clearly that some elites of “Unitary” ZRE (Zambian Republic Extortionists are in synchrony with some elites of BRE (Barotse Royal Establishment)). The reports; starting with the IG’s press remarks in March 2016, Zambian President’s statements both in Barotseland and Zambia late April 2016, and finally the Vice President’s remarks the same week but in Zambian parliament all indicated serious combination of acceptance, distortions and denial of the reality of Barotse Change. In my view, it is a revelation of serious schemes by Zambia aimed at but not limited to;
- Rebut of the 2012 BNC they validated by their full attendance; both BRE and ZRE; Is it possible?
- Coerce Barotseland citizens to remain as part of Zambia without any legal basis; how possible?
- Create the most crooked reason for blackmailing and condemning our gallant incarcerated BTG leaders forever; after being rightly sanctioned by the 2012 BNC Mandate; a Zambian haunting political and legal quagmire!
- Lengthen the Due Process started at the international legal fora for the final and amicable settlement of the lawsuit; by instituting illegal and baseless local remedies to the half- century old econopolitical impasse between Barotseland and Zambia.
- Create generative ground for Impeding progress at ICJ if possible or to refuse to accede to the jurisdictive pronouncements thereof finally.
However, there is one consolation; a matter of legal and epistemological clarity that for an IDEA like Barotse Change whose time has come there will be no amount of deceit or parading of some Lozi nationals in key Zambian positions will manage to pay to eclipse the reality of Barotse Change. Barotseland Independence is God’s way for us too as reflected in Act 17:26, “And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation…" Of particular significance are the following observations:
1. Barotseland is already an INDEPENDENT NATION AND STATE determined and appointed in times before and her bounds (territory) of our habitation (Barotseland) by God (Nyambe), whether Zambia accepts this sooner or later. The persistent moves by Zambia therefore, to encroach our territoriality are both confrontational and contemptuous of us and God. So Zambia should not expect us to watch idly when our territoriality is incessantly violated and intruded by her. Our day of freedom has come. This is a conclusive fact.
2. Secondly, we have the legitimate BAROTSELAND GOVERNMENT (BTG) with full powers in exercise of its national and legal mandate to protect Barotseland and her people from the ever scavenging politicians praying upon the unsuspecting Barotzis. Like Zambia, BTG has every right and duty to do everything possible in its mandate by the 2012 BNC to entrench our full independence and statehood, defense inclusive like all other state functions and functionaries. This does not require the consensus or permission of UN, AU, SADC or any other than our BTG, according to Barotseland and international laws we subscribe to as a country. Like it has been said before, we do not have and DO NOT NEED a “Barotse Liberation Army” or a Rebel Army for we are already liberated whether Zambia disengages with us sooner or later. Of course we understand that having been in Zambianship environment for nearly 50 years our people are expected to show the vestiges of Zambianism for a while. But the enemies of Barotse Change should not take advantage of the situation. Britain never did that to Zambians after attainment of Zambia’s independence! This is an irrefutable fact.
3. INTERNATIONAL LAW RECOGNIZES THAT GOVERNMENT IN WAITING OR IN EXILE MAY UNDERTAKE MANY TYPES OF ACTIONS IN THE CONDUCT OF THEIR DAILY AFFAIRS. Zambia as UN member knows this undeniable legal and political fact and appended her signature to pledge commitment and compliance to these international tenets of law, justice and human rights entrenchment. Evidence here exists when President Edgar Lungu of Zambia welcomed on Wednesday 17th February 2016 a diplomat accredited to Zambia from Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara) which is currently under Moroccan occupation -3(d) below. Consequently, this means that THE ACTIONS ARE NOT ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES to do but are allowed in international law and politics. These actions include:
a) Becoming a party to bilateral Agreement. (e.g. UNPO, FFSA & UNFS)
b) Amending or revising its constitution. (e.g. Transitional Constitution)
c) MAINTAINING MILITARY FORCES. (e.g. Barotse Native Police and Defence forces)
d) Newly obtaining diplomatic recognition by sovereign states etc. (Diplomats)
The concept of government in waiting does not mean that Barotse Government is new altogether rather an opportunity given to our once unitary statehood partner Zambian brothers and sisters to engage in the logical resolution of our Barotse Change amicably so we can remain delightful neighbours. Barotseland and her government are not new institutions in the Zambian and world history but are even much older than Zambia herself! Barotseland and Barotse Government are antiques that have been going through transitions and different phases changing names sometimes; for instance ‘Western Province’ and ‘BRE’ against our will, instead of Barotseland and Barotse Royal Authority -BRA.
4. NORTHERN RHODESIA THROUGH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT COAXED BAROTSELAND to go for a Unitary Treaty dubbed as the BA’64 which treaty Zambia was quick to abrogate and repudiate soon after it was signed, thus despising and rendering futile her own creation and innovation! We were not obliged to honour what the initiator Northern Rhodesia could not honour. There is also an indisputable fact that Zambia has been a rogue and dysfunctional unitary state from the time she abrogated and repudiated the BA’64 unitary treaty. The reality of Barotse Change and materiality of evidence in favour of our nationhood and statehood, in all aspects, is overwhelming beyond doubt. Whether Zambia knows this or not and whether or not she wants it that will not change the facts. This is another incontrovertible fact.
5. When Kenneth Kaunda signed the BA ’64 he did it in bad faith as a quick way of getting what they wanted – the prestige of a larger unitary piece of land to govern and yet failed to do so! Today they say the problem with BA ’64 was the interpretation and not implementation. They implemented the interpretation of the document the way they self-styled it; ONE ZAMBIA ONE NATION. Unfortunately, this slogan could neither make Zambia a monolithic nor Federal state. To the contrary, with us the problem with the abrogated and defunct BA ’64 was the implementation and not the interpretation thereof. That is why we finally took the stance in form of the 2012 BNC RESOLUTIONS AND UDI MANDATE. Simply put, BA ‘64 could not be implemented! This is an unarguable fact also.
6. Then BAROTSE NATION ACCEPTED AND FINALLY NAILED THE LAST NAIL TO THE ABROGATED AND REPUDIATED BA’64 BY ZAMBIA this way rendering it a defunct and no longer binding agreement on both parties. This is an indisputable fact, so that what we could not do in freedom of dependence on each other should be done best in freedom of our independences from each other – just remain neighbouring states. Otherwise, it was just a blessing in disguise for history has proved that democratic republic is incompatible with democratic Monarch system of governance, in the Zambian case, to render an effective union of unitary state.
7. Therefore, the only appropriate terms that apply now are DISENGAGEMENT, TRUE INDEPENDENCE and SOVEREIGNTY of both parties of Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia. That will be the only time when Zambia will know the true meaning of the terms in her real political life without Barotzis. It is not true that Zambia cannot survive without us. The converse is equally true – YES WE CAN. Otherwise, for nearly fifty years Zambia has been politically prostituting with Barotseland and living faked life, in the absence of the marriage treaty BA’64. This is not a deniable fact which neither BRE select nor ZRE select can do to the contrary, by their planned exclusive and inclusive selective meetings. History has recorded that our nearly fifty years in rogue and dysfunctional Zambia was due to unyielding Barotseland’s efforts towards the restoration of the unitary treaty BA’64 which WAS NULLIFIED in March 2012, beyond any restoration. How patient we had been!
8. For that reason, NULLIFYING ALL CALLS AND EFFORTS FOR RESTORATION OF THE DEFUNCT TREATY (though Zambian Vice President told Parley that “BA’64 is not dead”). This is because restoration of a defunct treaty becomes a serious misnomer in this case for there have been no trace elements of the union treaty as was purported by the defunct BA’64 in the “Zambian” period. IF IT WAS POSSIBLE the only attemptable route would have been a new treaty negotiation which COULD ONLY be endeavoured after full disengagement initially. The term referendum is also a serious misnomer over the same. This fact is unquestionable too.
9. The Zambian amended constitutions have had no record suggesting and defining the very unitary statehood they claim other than “The Republic is a unitary, indivisible, multi-ethnic, multiracial, multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-party democratic State”. There is NO GHOST OR MONO UNITARY PARTNERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL LAWS. The indisputable fact is that Zambia is a sovereign Republic under constitutional form of governance not unitary. We have all the legal and historic facts in our favour. Both the international and Zambian laws give testimony to the fact that the course of action we have decided to pursue in response to Zambia’s abrogation and repudiation of the BA’64 is very rational and credible to get us the legitimacy of the state Barotseland has attained. This is an indisputable fact to all lovers of law, peace, justice and order, both in Barotseland and international fraternity.
10. Another indisputable fact is that the two territories have remained separate lands and nations despite the political and economic DISTORTION OF THE ZAMBIAN HISTORY prior to 1964, after 1964 and later on 2012. For instance, it is common knowledge that Lewanika existed on the political platform before Kaunda and yet Lewanika is not even suggested in the Zambian hall of fame celebrated during even during the “Golden Jubilee”, as the founding father of Zambia preferring instead the young brother KK, and yet the unitary statehood included the Litunga’s signature alongside Kaunda’s! Fortunately, though our history is seriously dented in Zambia it is very alive in the world, Africa and SADC, through Lewanika’s distinguished role played especially in Southern Africa. Undoubtedly, this is another agonising truth.
11. If at all Zambia feels she has a case to put against Barotseland’s independence agenda she should have found it easy and opportune to challenge it or avail herself to international arbitrators. It is the SAME TREACHERY AND MALEVOLENT NATURE OF ZAMBIA AGAINST BAROTSELAND that makes her circumvent appearing in courts of Law to defend her cause. To the contrary, she has been quick to detain and litigate us, in her local courts, using her laws, for what is lawfully and rightfully ours! A case of this magnitude is a preserve of international legal framework and institutions. The behaviour displayed by the legal person Zambia so far is really nothing less than sedition and treason against Barotseland by Northern Rhodesia in Zambia, unlike the other way round currently portrayed, after sweet-talking and faithfully negotiating and appending signatures to launch the BA’64? This is a heart-breaking evolution of fact.
12. When Zambian leaders are busy circumventing the reality of Barotseland Change citizens of that country are pushing for KK’s birthday to be a public holiday as though he signed the BA’64 alone to birth the nation of Zambia! All these and many more facts evidence that Zambia has had no room for Barotseland, ONLY ILL-FATED WILL, judging by their schemes to obliterate us. This is an indisputable fact which given chance only time will tell.
13. We have made so much progress such that no amount of threats, bribing, betrayals, tortures, maiming and the like will help reverse the situation other than expatiate and expedite our agenda for the ultimate-our Total Independence, FOR THERE IS NO OTHER WAY. The year 1964 was not 2012, vice versa, and the political awareness and correctness then and now are quite different and over a ‘golden jubilee’ apart! Zambia had all the opportunities in her Golden Jubilee period to cooperate with Barotseland in her anxious efforts with governments of the day then for the restoration of BA’64. Why it makes sense after the 2012 BNC and UDI mandate one wonders! It is an indisputably wonder of it all, after nearly a Golden Jubilee of toiling!
14. Like a new born baby, the ‘new’ Barotseland Independence programme is irreversible and inevitable like the process of biological birth of an offspring. Additionally, in as much as we cannot reverse time to 26th -27th March, 2012 so it is unthinkable and improbable with our independence status. LET ALL THE ‘DOUBTING THOMASES’ KNOW THAT BAROTSE CHANGE IS FOR REAL, MAY BE DELAYED BUT NOT WRECKED! SO REAL THAT THE ONLY LAST ENEMY TO TACKLE NOW IS THE SOCIAL INERTIA OF HUMAN MINDSET CHANGE, IN BOTH SOME BAROTZISH AND ZAMBIANS TO FINALLY DISENGAGE WITH ZAMBIA AND EMBRACE THE SATIATED REALITY OF BAROTSE CHANGE.
Oh! How lovely the thought.
The people of Barotseland know that their future is inevitably not a shared one with Zambia through useless slogans like "One Zambia One Nation". The voices that called for 2012 self-determination through Barotse National Council (BNC) are not having ‘tandabale’ (joy ride), but are tirelessly working to augment wide coherence of other solidarity voices of those wishing to live in a liberated and peaceful Barotseland.
Sadly, the moderate minority of the oppressor's government staff that hail from Barotseland seem to have been stricken by the ailment of silence because of monetary gain and choose temporal comfort at the expense of liberty, while their forefathers' territory is at the brink of annexation by Zambia. The rest of the patriotic Barotse people, especially the youth, must be applauded for standing tall to the call of Barotseland independence. The Youths are ready to have their passion translated into the shared path of freedom heroes:
"Either we die for Barotseland or we live for it does not matter. We are a generation that has chosen freedom of Barotseland". End of quote.
Limiting the rights of Barotse people to express their identity through self legislation is not only an attack on the existence of human rights but an assassination of God who endorsed such inalienable rights of self determination. The actions, by the Zambian government, of arbitrary arrests, prohibition of freedom of assembly to discuss development of Barotseland issues, etc, is not only a deliberate act of disobedience to the rule of international law but also an assault to civilization as well. Unworthy and undesirable is the repeated repression and violation of Barotseland citizens’ rights to freedom, and it is a desperate futile effort at de-legitimizing the popular representative resolutions of 2012 BNC. It is these criminal acts of territoriality which do not settle well among the patriotic citizens of Barotseland.
The legislative maneuvers seeking to restrict the freedom of Barotseland people, including the increasing government hacking of phone conversations, prohibition of peaceful public rallies and media coverage of Barotseland arrests and convictions is a clear indication that the Barotse are valued less as humans in Zambia.
What is wrong with ‘declaring allegiance’ to the state that one legally belongs to? Zambia is practicing double legislative standards when it comes to the people of Barotseland, considering Lozis as objects of subjugation and enslavement, which restricts progress of political awareness of Barotseland peoples' rights.
The fact that the right to self determination is the fundamental right of every person to freely decide on their own political status and to pursue their own choice of economic, cultural and social development is embodied in the US Declaration of Independence of 1776 and has appeared repeatedly throughout international conventions and charters. It is indisputable demonstration of the centrality of the fundamental right of political and economic determination, unlike the scope of threats the Right of Self determination is currently facing at the hands of the rogue state of Zambia!
Whatever seems like a setback at the moment, caused by the floated High court ruling against Barotseland independence leaders, will not deter us from achieving our hard fought freedom! Whatever the difficulties, Barotseland shall overcome! However improbable it may sound to the skeptics, Barotseland is no longer part of Zambia but merely a sister country. Everything is on the drawing board and a free Barotseland is no longer a pipe dream but a reality.
Bulozi fasi la bondata Luna!
Zambia should be paradigmatic in their undertaking as regards the Barotseland independence struggle, with serious caution not to continue violating the principle of public international law. Barotseland, which has now reverted to its original status of nation-state, has moved away from the traditional structure of BRE to a ‘political ideology’ system. Nevertheless, it has become very clear that Zambia glorifies violence in their response to the 2012 BNC Barotseland independence declaration. Therefore, Zambia’s persistent political administration of Barotseland territory can no longer be tolerated. It is a political wound against the wishes of the people of Barotseland to stomach un-palatable words from the Zambian government in the wake of the fliers meant to sensitize Barotseland's citizenry to refrain from the upcoming August 11, 2016 Zambia Elections.
Barotseland has the civil and political human right to decide either to vote or not to vote in Zambia’s 2016 August Elections by means of peaceful expressions. Having annulled the only legal treaty that joined Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia together, Zambia no longer has any bona fide claim over Barotseland's political affairs within the factual context of Article 20 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' rights and in accordance with the doctrine of postliminium.
Zambia should know that even more materially and militarily powerful empires and states than her have been defeated by poorly armed or even completely unarmed entities, not because they met resistant and violent forces, but because they found another source of strength - a total mobilization of the population via political, administrative, and ideological tools. Thus, politically organized Barotseland draws her strength from the 2012 BNC declared independence which has remained the key ingredient in challenging illegality of Zambia’s political administration of Barotseland.
Most people look to historical accounts to understand how their own nations emerged and fought for their freedom. Such history often tells of violent battles and insurrections, victories and defeat in wars, and fallen heroes in armed struggles. These narratives support the common belief that violence is the indispensable and only weapon to win freedom from subjugation. Barotseland, although under extreme oppression of her right to self determination by Zambia which became a quasi-colonizer after inheriting the obligations of the treaties and conventions subsistent between Britain and Barotseland protectorate in 1964 through the defunct Barotseland Agreement 1964 (BA’64), chooses diplomacy through nonviolent actions to demand her political and economic freedom. However, the nonviolence philosophy only thrives in the environment that has respect for the rule of law and respect for human rights!
It must be emphasized here that Zambia's heavy handedness towards Barotseland’s independence drive is uncalled for. From the context of Law and historical fact, Barotseland was never conquered to come under Zambia's administration! As a UN member country, Zambia must strive to conduct its affairs in line with international law and conventions in regard to self determination of the people of Barotseland as per their independence declaration. Zambia's ruling political elite should be honest and true to their citizens and more importantly to the subjugated people of Barotseland. Integrity does not mean defeat; a nation with integrity accepts consequences of the wrong deeds done by their past leaders.
May the Zambian authority illegally stationed in Barotseland be informed that Zambia's 2016 election is not part of 2012 BNC Barotseland independence resolutions in order for them to respect and uphold Zambia's election. Even Zambian laws do not have a legal enforcement of compulsory voting clause! Voting in Zambia is just a RIGHT and not a DUTY; similarly, the people of Barotseland cannot be forced to participate in Zambia's elections against their conscience, as that would be tantamount to interference in another country's affairs because it is neither their DUTY nor RIGHT to participate in Zambian elections.
The people of Barotseland need independence of their territory much more than the August 11, 2016 Zambian elections. The political conceptions which divide Barotseland and Zambia are by far worse and deep rooted in illegal occupation than the purported ‘hate’ fliers being propagated by the Zambian media.
Barotseland independence is imminent.
Zambia is going to the polls on August 11, 2016, to choose a republican president, running mate (Vice president), law makers (MPs), Mayors, Councillors and district leaders to continue subjugating, arresting, maiming and detentions of the Barotse people. Here in lies a challenge of loyalty; either for Barotseland to adhere to the Transitional Government directives as per 2012 BNC independence resolutions or continue voting the government of Zambia, the occupier, in perpetual enslavement! The question is, ‘for how long will it take the people of Barotseland to acknowledge and respect their human, political and economic rights as enshrined in international conventions and as echoed by the 2012 BNC resolutions and were they not the same people who unanimously voted for independence of Barotseland in 2012 through Barotse National Congress?’
Certainly, it is only those in denial, misguided and selfish elite Lozis who think supporting the Zambian elections in Barotseland is tantamount to some gain. Four years down the line, the Barotse monarch, surprisingly not the people, is still stuck to the generic name of ‘Western Province’ instead of the territorial name known to have signed the Barotseland Agreement 1964 (BA’64) with Zambia, then Northern Rhodesia, 52 years back!
No person or organization in this world will grant the Barotse their country back on a silver plate. Only patriotism can achieve that, which brings into play the WILL of the people because freedom is demanded not guaranteed. It's time the WILL of the people, as expressed through the 2012 BNC resolutions, is upheld for the corporative partners to take us seriously. Besides, we expect every contribution of average intelligence and patriotism towards our sovereignty attainment from all well meaningful Lozi citizens over this national issue of self-determination.
It must be noted that we have no time to treat our independence declaration in a reluctant manner; things ought to be finalized now. We have complained of Zambian brutality and domination enough; we have used legal recourse to bring justice in this issue long enough; we have followed peaceful and civilized approach in this issue enough; now it is time to implement our peoples' WILL. As far as Barotseland stands, the elements of statehood have been fulfilled long ago, the onus is on the people to legitimize Barotseland sovereignty through own civil transitional government led by Hon. Afumba Mombotwa.
The formation of Barotseland Transitional Government (BTG) was done according to Barotseland's laws and international law. The BNC resolutions are loud and clear. The only way to challenge another country's sovereignty is legitimized by the formation of a government, and by international law, one government cancels another government, and Government gives birth to statehood. In other words, an ORGANIZATION like an ALLIANCE has no AUTHORITY to really tackle independence actualization because they lack SOVEREIGNTY. Only states have legitimate authority and therefore, the Afumba led leadership JUSTIFIED the BNC 2012 Resolutions. Government vs government per se, and NOT organization vs government, the former stands to win while the latter is destined for failure.
Dragging Zambia's 2016 elections in Barotseland territory will not only breed discontent but a direct injury to the 2012 BNC independence resolutions which clearly and categorically gave political direction for the people of Barotseland.
Our kind of peacefulness and obedience to law brings altogether different stinks of ill-motives from our subjugator, and tend to derail much anticipated progress in as far as self-determination is concerned. There is need to step up ‘de-campaigning’ programs in form of shunning the election rallies; beef-up peaceful demonstrations; widening information dissemination base; organized self sponsored sports activities to cultivate the sense of belonging; refrain from participation in voting, etc, against the Zambian elections and politics in Barotseland this time around.
This calls for consolidated collaborations and efforts of all pressure groups in conjunction with the Barotseland Transitional Government. On issues of national interest we have to put petty politics and assumptions aside.
Another credibility test for Barotseland people to prove to the world whether they can be united and come out victorious over the imposed 2016 Zambian elections in independent declared Barotseland territory!
God save the people of Barotseland.
TEN (10) PRIORITY PRINCIPLES OF BAROTSE CHANGE MANAGMENT
What follows is the listing of Ten (10) Priority principles guiding our Barotse Change management. Using these as a systematic, ample framework, our leaders can understand what to expect, how to manage their own personal change, and how to engage the entire Bulozi and Barotzish in the course of our excruciating walk to complete freedom, taking on board, all those Barotse who should, onto the shore of freedom.
1. MAKE THE FORMAL CASE.
Individuals are inherently judicious and will question to what extent change is needed, whether or not the organisation is headed in the right direction, and whether or not they want to commit and involve personal substance to making the change happen. Once committed and involved then they will look to the leadership for answers to any questions encountered. The formulation of the Barotse Change as formal case for change and the creation of a written vision statement as 8th September, 2011 UDI and 27th March, 2012 BNC Resolutions as our FREEDOM MANDATE were done and are valuable opportunities to create and compel Barotse leadership-team commitment and compliance for three main reasons:
a. CONFRONTING THE REALITY OF OUR CHANGE and enunciating a convincing need for Barotse change, even in the face of isolated cases of dissident leaders, citizens and the victim ‘die hards’ of Zambian colonialism. They NEED to know that the change is irreversible, inevitable and the ultimate!
b. DEMONSTRATING DEVOTION AND CONFIDENCE that Barotseland has a viable future and the leadership will get us there, as a nation and state. If Sudan and others did it why can’t we do it; a more straightforward and unique political and economic scenario?
c. And last but not the least, PROVISION OF A ROAD MAP (provisional policy framework compendia) to guide behaviour and decision making; civic, international and investments.
Leaders must then adapt this message for various internal audiences, describing the pending change in terms that matter to the individuals. We thank God that we already have compendia of guiding documents for our government to take over business in Barotseland. Therefore, the materiality of our Barotse Change, as a formal case, needs to be planted on the ground. No one else will tell when, why and how to do so, other than ourselves. The Barotseland Independence case has been formalised already! Additionally, all is consistent with all applicable local and international legal frameworks.
2. CREATE OWNERSHIP.
Leaders of large change programs like Barotse Change must over perform during the transformation and be the zealots who create a critical mass among the citizens and work force in favour of change. This requires more than mere buy-in or passive agreement that the direction of change is acceptable. It demands primary ownership by leaders willing to accept responsibility for making change happen in all of the areas they influence or control. In our case ownership was best created when people were involved in crafting the solution as 27th March, 2012 BNC Resolutions and Mandate. This is reinforced by our tangible and intangible economic, political and psychological incentives and rewards in offering by the completely free nation of Barotseland determining her own destiny. We only have one Barotseland our heritage outside of which we are purely bond slaves to the nation of Zambia and her allies.
3. ADDRESS THE “HUMAN SIDE” SYSTEMATICALLY.
It is supposed to be common knowledge that any significant change or transformation creates “people issues”. For instance, BTG and BRA leaders are expected to step up efforts, jobs should be changed consequent to disengagement with Zambia and withdrawal of Zambian governance system, new skills and capabilities being a requisite and need to be developed, and some Barotzish being uncertain and resistant to our Change Programme. Dealing with such issues on a reactive, case-by-case basis puts speed, morale, and results at high risk. In scoring the ultimate these issues are unavoidable and should be done meticulously to tap the best from the human side of our people and for progress’ sake. It is quite suicidal to leave to common sense alone and take human side for granted. Reason, deliberate and concerted effort by leadership must act the obvious role.
4. COMMUNICATING THE MESSAGE.
Quite often, change leaders make the mistake of believing that others understand the issues, feel the need to change, and see the new direction as clearly as they do. The best change programs reinforce core messages through regular, timely advice that is both inspirational and practicable. Communications should flow in from the bottom and out from the top, targeted to provide subjects with the right information at the right time and to beseech their input and feedback. Often this will require over-communication through multiple, usually unwanted channels; besides the official media like Barotseland Post, Barotseland Television and Barotseland Radio. It is also quite important to pay attention to the silent communication – what is not being said in every communication, for full benefits of the integrated communication system.
5. START AT THE TOP.
This is because people find change characteristically unsettling at all levels of an organization. When Change is on the prospect, all eyes will turn to the leadership team for strength, support, and direction. Therefore, a formal tactic for managing change would have to begin with the leadership of Team Barotse and then engage key stakeholders and leaders. This demands as much data collection and analysis, planning, and implementation discipline as possible based on a realistic assessment of the Barotseland’s history, readiness, and capacity to change. Our leaders must fully embrace the Change and its new methodologies first, both to challenge and to motivate the rest of the Barotseland. The leadership must speak with one voice and model the desired behaviours. The Barotse Change management team also needs to understand that, although its public face may be one of unity, it, too, comprises individuals who are going through stressful times and in need of support, especially from the followers. Consequently, when our managerial teams work well in UNITY OF DIVERSITY AND EXUDING THE BAROTSE CHANGE then we will be best positioned for overwhelming success. But the Edwin Lubosi Syndrome (ELS) is worrisome and neither reliable nor progressive.
6. INVOLVE EVERY LEVEL.
As change programs progress from defining strategy and setting targets to design and implementation, they affect different levels of the organization. Change efforts usually must include plans for identifying leaders throughout the organisation, so that change “cascades” through the organization. At each layer (from Namuso to Munzi) of Barotseland, the leaders who are identified, appointed and trained or inducted must be aligned to the 2012 BNC’s vision and UDI, fully equipped to perform their function and implement their specific mission, and motivated to make Barotse Change materialize fully. The new and emergent BRA attitude to Barotse Change deserves remarking and nurturing. Let our dear parents know that they are no longer BRE but BRA and are expected to behave as such; in their pre-1964 stardom. They should not lurk behind for transition period is for them too just like BTG and Barotseland at large, to adjust accordingly for maximum function and capacity.
7. ASSESS THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE.
Successful change programs pick up speed and intensity as they flow down, making it critically important that leaders understand and account for culture and behaviours at each level of the organization. The mistake organisations often make is assessing culture either too late or not at all, resulting in dragged resolution of change. Thorough cultural diagnostics can assess organizational readiness to change, bring major problems to the surface, identify conflicts, and define factors that can recognize and influence sources of leadership and resistance. These diagnostics identify the core values, beliefs, behaviours, and perceptions that must be taken into account for successful change to occur. They serve as the common baseline for designing essential change elements, such as the new Barotse national vision, and building the infrastructure and programs needed to drive change mwa Bulozi. This may mean among others, making follow-ups to the recent cultural and leadership incongruence in Kaoma and Lukulu areas. Barotseland is one nation and its geographic boundaries designate the extent of its national culture. Zambia has been tempering with the border towns a lot for her own political mileage, against Barotse Change.
8. ADDRESS CULTURE EXPLICITLY.
Once the culture is understood, it should be addressed as thoroughly as any other area in a change program. Our leaders should be frank about the culture and underlying behaviours that will best support the new way of doing business in Barotseland, and find opportunities to model and reward those behaviours. This requires developing a reference point, defining an explicit end state or desired culture, and devising detailed plans to make the transition.
Barotseland or National (Silozi) culture is an amalgam of shared history, explicit values and beliefs, and common attitudes and behaviours. Barotse Change program is also the restoration of its culture, combining the 38+ sub-cultures as well as reinforcing the cultures. Understanding that all organisations like countries have a CULTURAL CENTRE; Barotse National Government and the BRA, as the locus of thought, activity, influence, or national and personal identification is an effective way to jump-start culture change. Let our cultural centre so function to full capacity.
9. INDIVIDUAL NETWORKING.
While Barotse Change is a national agenda it is also a very personal one. Barotzish spend many hours each week at work with many considering their co-workers as a second family. Individuals and teams of Barotseland need to know how their work will change, what is expected of them during and after the change program, how they will be evaluated, and what success or failure will mean for them and those around them. Team Barotse leaders should be as honest and explicit as possible. People will react to what they see or do not see and hear or do not hear around them, and notwithstanding all this they need to be involved in the Barotse change process anyway, because the masses form the majority of the playfield of Barotse Change without whom the results of Barotse Change will be meaningless to leaders. Eventually, when time and finances allow, highly visible rewards such as recognition, appointments, promotion and bonuses are provided as dramatic reinforcement for embracing the change. In contrast, sanctions or removals of people standing in the way of Barotse Change reinforce our country’s commitment to its newly established and espoused ethos.
10. PREPARE FOR THE UNEXPECTED.
No change program goes completely according to plan. People react in unexpected ways; areas of anticipated resistance fall away, the external international environment shifting to support our oppressor Zambia militarily or through other means. So, effectively managing Barotse Change requires continual reassessment of its impact as well as the nation’s willingness and ability to adopt the next ripple of transformation. Served by real data and information from the ground (Barotse intelligence) and supported by firm decision-making processes, Barotse Change leaders can then make the adjustments necessary to maintain momentum and drive results home. Contingency Approach will then avail the alternative path in the face of the unexpected feedback; whether it is at AU, SADC, UN or other levels of consultations, negotiations or bargains in leveling down and off the political stalemate between Barotseland and Northern Rhodesia. Otherwise, procrastination is said to be a thief of time especially from the leaders’ perspective, leading to undesirable evaluation of leadership. On the other hand, followers tend to find ways of filling up the void of procrastination and delayment this way resulting in chaos and frustration of the change goals.
Most leaders contemplating change know that people matter for it is them who implement change and get affected by it cognitively or intellectually, physically, emotionally and otherwise, unlike policies, good buildings or development structures. It is all too tempting, however, for leaders to dwell on the plans and processes (the “hardware” side), which don’t talk back and don’t respond emotionally, opting out the encounter with the more difficult and more critical human “soft” issues. By mastering the “soft” side; the persware of Barotse Change, for instance, the mystery of leaders or Barotse citizens walking back over their word regarding the 2012 BNC mandate should be a bygone henceforth. BAROTSELAND’S COMPLETE FREEDOM WITHOUT BAROTSE’S LIBERATION FROM THE BONDAGE OF ZAMBIAN MINDSET IS NOT TRUE AND COMPLETE FREEDOM! With our UDI and 2012 BNC Mandate already in place and while we are seeking actualize our complete political and economic independence our disengagement from the Zambian mindset is the ultimate desired outcome in all Barotzish. While this cannot be an overnight task progress must be seen to this very end. Our people must be seen to THINK, SPEAK, ACT, SING, DRESS, WALK AND WORK less and less the Zambian way but more the Barotzish style. Given our newly found national value ecosystem the fruits are beaming with overpowering radiance in the horizon!
Part 01 can be found here
Tukongote Wa Mwanaa Nongolo!
Political and economic freedom without emancipated human mindset is not true and complete freedom indeed. With our heightened Barotse Change I now strongly believe the struggle should now concentrate Barotse Change management’s collective mind on something that presents most change agendas with an unfamiliar challenge. In major transformations leaders traditionally focus their attention on devising the best strategic and tactical plans as in, Barotseland case; Barotseland 8th September 2011 UDI, the framing of the 2012 BNC Resolution, establishment of the BTG, engagement of international fraternity among others. Much as this component is important, to succeed, we also must have an intimate understanding of the human side (“software” and persware) of change management to ensure the alignment of the Barotseland’s culture, values, people, and behaviours that encourage the PURELY BAROTZISH desired MINDSET CHANGE and OUTCOMES. Once the persware’s “soft” issues are taken care of it makes the rest of the Barotse Change components easier to manage. That is, it is quite thorny for us to embrace complete political and economic independence for Barotseland if most Barotzish are still caged mentally and captivated in ZAMBIANSHIP especially politically and economically! In such a condition radical measures become a must or obvious. The radical measures are embedded in and constitute what I would term the Ten (10) Priority Principles of Barotseland Change Management.
BAROTSE CHANGE CHARACTERISTICS
To understand this aspect of reality we need to remind each other about the nature of our dear transformation – the Barotse Change. A long-term organisational transformation like Barotse Change has four identifiable characteristics:
a) SCALE; the size and extent of change – the Barotse Change affects all of our country Barotseland. That is, the scale of our change is comprehensively national – all-inclusive both at home and those in the diaspora. Also includes international scale constituted as the friends of the Team Barotse ‘abroad’.
b) SIGNIFICANCE; it is very critical in that it involves both the full restoration of Barotseland to its pre-1964 status as well as make validation and significant alterations of the status quo and failed Unitary Statehood with Northern Rhodesia Zambia; hence the diffidence, indifference, averseness and resistance to Barotse Change in certain quarters of our community and diaspora. It is a matter of do or die for a country that was threatened with extermination for decades!
c) DURATION; unlike wishful thoughts and dreams our Barotse Change has had a phase since 18th May, 1964; lasting for decades, years, months, weeks, days and finally moments, to the full restoration of what was forfeited and sacrificed then.
d) STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE; Barotse transformational change aims at full restoration of our motherland to its pre-Zambian independence status, but this time as a Constitutional Democratic Monarch. This means among others, autonomy, self-determination and sovereignty as a nation and state, in the management of our national affairs.
Yet Barotseland will reap maximum rewards only when Barotse Change occurs at the level of the individual Barotzish. All apparent gaps in our national structure should be closed down. Otherwise, anything and anybody dissident to our dear cause will easily creep in to take advantage and endeavour to fill in the ‘blanks’. THE BALL IS ENTIRELY IN OUR COURT BUT WHAT NEXT the masses are anxiously inquiring! Should we wait until the next Zambian president comes up with his own sugar coated schemes or whatever, in their electioneering gymnastics using our electorates and people for door marts only, into their power houses?
Read Part 02 here.
On 09.09.1999, the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity issued a Declaration (the Sirte Declaration) calling for the establishment of an African Union.
Some of its objectives are:
To promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments;
To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its Member States meaning the above objective can conveniently be overridden by this objective.
Fast forward to 9 to 23 April 2013 in Banjul, Gambia when The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Commission) held its 53rd Ordinary Session at which the issue of Barotseland first came to the fore amongst 86 other cases like these below:
(i) Communication 427/12: SERAP (on behalf of Daniel Nsofor and Osayinwinde Agbomien) v. Nigeria;
(i) Communication 427/12: SERAP (on behalf of Daniel Nsofor and Osayinwinde Agbomien) v. Nigeria;
(ii) Communication 428/12: Dawit Isaak (represented by Price Orsonneau Jess Alcala and Percy Bratt) v. Eritrea;
(iii) Communication 429/12: The Ngambela of Barotseland and Others v. Zambia;
(iv) Communication 430/12: Gabriel Shumba and Others v. Zimbabwe; Blah blah blah until communication 86.
This raised headlines in Barotseland and beyond as freedom was on the horizon we were informed!
The next time we heard Barotseland being mentioned at the AU was at the 54th Ordinary Session in Banjul, The Gambia from 22 October – 5 November 2013 stating:
VII. Communication with Request for Change of Name Communication 429/12: The Ngambela of Barotseland and Others v Zambia. Who initiated this communication and what were the contents of this??
The latest (26th) Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union dubbed the 'African Year of Human rights’ has conveniently omitted the issue of Barotseland (unless there is another committee sitting somewhere) with the closest matter discussed similar to our cause being (ACHPR) Decision 37: 10. REITERATES its deep concern at the continuing illegal occupation Western Sahara territories that have been visits by the ACHPR
Accordance with the decision of the Executive Board thereon; DEMANDS setting Rapid implementation of the various United Nations resolutions and the AU to Ensure in the shortest possible time, self-determination of the Saharawi people Long delayed; in this respect, the Council RECOMMENDS that the AU is organizing Certain activities in the liberated territories of Western Sahara a sign of solidarity with the Saharawi people in their legitimate aspiration.
Bulozi London Opinion: The AU route is a zero option!
Bulozi London is a United Kingdom based social media group centered around Barotseland and other related matters run by Barotse nationals.
It is with pleasure and a sense of historical responsibility that I headed a small delegation from Barotseland to be present at the ANC’s 104-anniversary celebration, which is in honour of the founders of the ANC.
This history of Barotseland in Southern Africa is worthy of celebrations, and as a part of it, my delegation has appreciated the opportunity having shared in it. However, out of this celebration, we learn that this ANC cross-border foundation is essential towards consolidating advances made and to teaching cross-border solidarity over what remains of our common struggle for democracy and development, in justice, freedom and equality.
The ANC leadership has commendably invited us to look at the joint cross-border past Barotseland and South Africa common efforts against European domination, exploitation and human rights violation against African people. In our turn, we are critically inviting the ANC leadership to focus on the outstanding and unsatisfactory plight of Barotseland.
The country was Barotseland Protectorate under treaties independently negotiated with the British Crown. It was Barotse Province, after independence, when the 1964 Barotseland Agreement replaced the treaties with Britain, and allowing Barotseland to be an integral part of Zambia. The Zambian Government, which still stands by this deliberate failure to honour even a nation building foundational promised, unilaterally abrogated this Agreement in 1969.
This Agreement was the only mutually agreed guarantee or mechanism for the reconciliation of Barotse national interests within postcolonial Zambia. By this act, and to apply Wole Soyinka’s line of thought,
“A profound trust was betrayed, and only a community of fools will entrust its most sacred possession – nationhood – yet again to a class that has proven so fickle, so treacherous and dishonourable.”
To add insult to injury of betraying the trust of Barotseland, Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda exercised the same impulse as European-American bent on enslaving Africans. European enslavers of Africans imposed European or meaningless names on captive Africans, so that they may forget their roots and identity as distinct human beings, who had been free and independent, with own African homeland and a socio-cultural system. Similarly, there was a presidential decree renaming of Barotseland as Western Province, against the will of Barotse people, in an effort to subjugate and degrade Barotseland and erase its identity, integrity and history.
The population of Barotse nationals is comparable to SADC member states. Barotseland has a land mass that is larger or equal to that of 19 African Union member states. Barotseland has an over 400 year’s nation building and survival drive, and was not a creation of colonialism. Partisan and short-term political expedience cannot wish away, ignore and bury this endeavor. Barotseland is an integral part of broader African and Sub regional history that is a critical corner stone in the foundation of the continuing long walk to African liberation, in its full context.
Barotseland is in an unattainable situation that makes peace with justice and freedom impossible. There is continuous violation of human rights. There has hardly been a single year without Barotse political prisoners, since the 1969 unilateral abrogation of the 1964 Barotseland Agreement. Currently, four Barotse nationals were captured and have been kept in a maximum prison, caged in a cell, which is not fit for a piggery. European colonialists built this cell to hold 20 native prisoners; it is now stuffed with 300 Africans, including the four Barotse political prisoners.
On one hand, the Zambian Government has unilaterally abrogated the 1964 Barotseland Agreement, which was on the 'freely negotiated and agreed' basis, making Barotseland an integral part of Zambia. On the other hand, the Zambian Government has applied the police state force against Barotse nationals’ human rights and Barotseland’s right to self-determination. This situation has made Barotseland a nation without a state.
In its founding spirit, the ANC has led the liberated South Africa to the forefront of African efforts towards maintaining peace and security, including measures for preventing and removing threats to the peace. This has not ruled out application of means of suppressing acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, towards justice and freedom. It has also been in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, which seeks to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, but is not, and should not, be limited to interstate relations to internal violations of human rights and threats to peace.
By extending this policy action line to address the plight of Barotseland, the ANC, through the South African Government, would be fulfilling its founding perception and mission, as commemorated so joyfully and proudly during the 104th Anniversary celebrations, which we have gratefully witnessed. Let the linkage be unbroken!
The 104th ANC Anniversary Cerebrations upheld significant cross-border memorable and still critical linkages. President Jacob Zuma’s statement to Traditional leaders and address at the Dinner show at Sun City on January 8, 2016 as well as the Rally at the Royal Bafokeng Stadium, Rustenburg on January 6, 2016 highlighted these features. Among these are Barotseland’s more than 160 years old social and economic linkages with South Africa in general and the 104 years political association with the ANC in particular. My participation in the subject celebrations underscores this.
As President Zuma pointed out, this history teaches that the ANC has a cross-border sub regional foundation stones, focus and aspirations. One of many illustration of this is the inerasable historical fact that King Lubosi Lewanika of Barotseland was among the seven African Kings appointed as Honourary Presidents of the South African Native National Congress at its founding in 1912, 104 years ago.
King Lewanika the First is the father of Mbikusita Lewanika, who, somewhat like his father, also served as the Founder President General of the Northern Rhodesia African Congress (1948 to 1951) before enthronement as King Lewanika the Second of Barotseland (1968 to 1977). Mbikusita Lewanika warmly hosted his counterpart, the then ANC President Dr James Moroka‘s family at his home in Kitwe, Northern Rhodesia in 1951 - ten years before Nelson Mandela passed through in the rather hesitant 1962 reception by UNIP leadership.
King Lewanika the First is the grandfather of the writer, Akashambatwa Mbikusita Lewanika, who has been the initiator and Founder National Secretary of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy, which ended the One Party State in Zambia (1990 to 1991.) Zambian political leaders befriending the ANC have either consistently sought to hide or have been ignorant about this precious history starting with King Lewanika the First as one of the Founder Honourary Presidents of the ANC at founding 104 years ago.
The ANC is continuing to stress the full range of its roots, including the long and diverse association with Barotseland. This is commendable and valuable.
We are grateful that President Zuma, working together with Mandla Mandela the traditional leader of Mvezo, had extended an invitation to my sister and myself, who are grand children of King Lewanika the First of Barotseland, at the official opening of the Makgato Lewanika Mandela Primary School, Quno. We regret that we were unable to be present due to change of dates and logistics; however, we were very much there in spirit. It has been our faith that the future holds prospects for our presence at such occasions.
The first decade of the 20th Century ended with establishment of a common purpose between Afrikaner and British European settler communities through the 1910 Union of South Africa dominion status. This was a united European settler determination to dispossess and disempower Africans in South Africa as well as the rest of Central and Southern Africa. The second decade opened with the 1912 founding of the South African Native National Congress, for Africans within and beyond the boundaries of South Africa.
African traditional leaders had sought ways of retaining African rights to land and liberty, in the wake of European drive for economic dominion and racial superiority over all the lands and people of Africa. However, traditional methods of war and isolated resistance by African kingdoms were no match for the onslaught of European aggression. On the other hand, there were no known and tested models of self-defense against this new and tough adversity.
The 1912 founding of the South African Native National Congress launched a new African reaction in form of a political organization. This was the African National Congress of South Africa. It represented African people from Cape Town in the south to Barotseland in the north. It involved African traditional authorities who were directly being disposed, or threatened with dispossession, of land and negation of the human right of self-government in freedom.
The Congress movement was organized on a territorial basis after the Second World War. For example, 1948 witnessed the founding of the Northern Rhodesia African Congress in 1948, under the founder presidency of Mbikusita Lewanika, a son of King Lewanika the first of Barotseland. The ANC of South Africa inspired territorial congresses. The independence for African countries culminating with the defeat of Apartheid in 1994 as a fruit of the founding of what has become the ANC of South Africa, 104 years ago.
More about the Author: Prince Dr. Akashambatwa Mbikusita Lewanika's professional profile can be found here
In economic development and business Management, he completed three years service as Managing Director of the Tanzania Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA). He had earlier served in the public sector for twelve years as a subsidiary General Manager as well as Group Controller of Group Management Services and Group Director of Projects of the Industrial Development Corporation of Zambia. In the private sector, he served for three years as General Manager of the multi-national corporation Blackhood Hodge.
In political governance, he clocked twenty years variously as initiator and Founder National Secretary of the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy, a legislator, a Cabinet Minister of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, Special Assistant (Political) to the state President, Chairman of the National Economic Advisory Council, Chairman of the National Governing Council of the African Peer Review Mechanism and a Commissioner of the Anti-Corruption Commission.
In civic and social sectors, he served for three years as Chairman of the Economic Association of Zambia. He has also served as Chairman of the Kitwe Press Club and Chairman of the Lusaka Amateur Boxing Association as well as Committee member of Kitwe and District Chamber of Commerce. In addition, he has been a regular resource person for diverse social and economic associations, such as the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions, Small Scale industrialists and cooperative unions.
Academically and professionally, he holds three Master’s degrees from Boston, Carleton and Cornell universities as well as a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Jackson State University in the USA and Canada. In addition, he holds a Fellowship of the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, a Certificate in Science and Technology Innovation Programme from the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a Certificate in Management Accounting from International Labour Organisation and a Certificate, United Nations Institute for Public Enterprise, Ljubljana, Slovenia during the era of a united Yugoslavia. In addition, he has been awarded D. Phil (Honori Causa) by the International Management Centres Association and Revans University of the U.K. in recognition of his contribution towards Democracy and Development as well as lifetime demonstration of Action Learning.
He was one of the expert formulators of the African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programme for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation of the Economic Commission for Africa. He has been a consultant for the Addis Ababa based Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, in addition to having undertaken consultancy assignments for the UNIDO and the PTA (now named as COMESA). He has been the Chairman of the Economic Association of Zambia and Zambia Research Foundation.
He has authored books, articles and other publications on varied subjects, including political economy, political development, history and poetry.
1960 is referred to as the YEAR OF AFRICA by historians, politicians and Pan-Africanists because of chains of events that occurred during the year resulting in the independence of seventeen African nations which in turn heightened the growing spirit of Pan-Africanism in the continent. The year 1960 brought about the consummation of African independence movements and the consequent emergence of Africa as a major force in the global body of United Nations (UN). No doubt that Barotseland was there, as a member of the Southern Africa community of countries (SADC) even Africa continent by default, given the fact that Barotseland has been an existing nation on the continent and sub region from time immemorial; as a kingdom with a history stretching back quinquennial centuries.
During colonial times Barotseland was a British protectorate, a status that gave her greater autonomy than the rest of the area managed by the British South African Company (BSAC), on behalf of the British Empire in Southern Africa then. While Barotseland was a British protectorate the neighbouring Northern Rhodesia was a colony. When the African Independence loomed in the early 1960s the Southern Africa region did not lurk behind the rest of Africa as can be seen from the data presented below. Unfortunately, on 19th May, 1964 Sir Mwanawina Lewanika III, K.B.E Litunga of Barotseland at the time was coaxed to grime in with the would be new country of Zambia, using the much outspoken BA’64 Treaty on condition that Barotseland maintained her element of self-governance. Consequentially, Barotseland unintentionally and malevolently deferred her freedom of independence, by the same token of the unitary but defunct BA ’64 treaty, up until March 2012. Since then Barotseland has been lobbing the international institutions to help in amicably disengaging off the once unitary treaty partners of Zambia.
The wind of change mounted up then resulting in a number of countries in Africa and Southern Africa in particular gaining independence.
For instance, and in that order:
- Madagascar (26/06/1960),
- DR Congo (30/06/1960),
- Malawi (06/07/1964),
- Zambia (24/10/1964),
- Botswana (30/09/1966),
- Lesotho (04/10/1966),
- Mauritius (12/03/1968),
- Swaziland (06/09/1968),
- Mozambique (25/06/1975),
- Angola (11/11/1975),
- Seychelles (29/06/1976),
- Zimbabwe (18/04/1980),
- Namibia (21/03/1990) and
- South Africa (27/04/1994).
This makes a list of fifteen completely independent SADC member states to which Barotseland mutely belongs and craves to become a salient member state soonest. The wind of change (Decolonisation) continues until the wheels of justice are corrected in the full recognition of the UDI of the last repressed state of Barotseland, this side of Africa.
In October 1960, Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah’s famous speech delivered to the United Nations assembly on discussing continent Africa's role in the world and the future role of the world in Africa Nkrumah championed Africa's new power, saying it did not wish revenge on its European colonizers, but would demand on freedom. He said,
“One cardinal fact of our time is the momentous impact of Africa’s awakening upon the modern world. The flowing tide of African nationalism sweeps everything before it and constitutes a challenge to the colonial powers to make a just restitution for the years of injustice and crime committed against our continent.
But Africa does not seek vengeance. It is against her very nature to harbour malice. Over two million of our people cry out with one voice of tremendous power. And what do they say? We do not ask for death for our oppressors; we do not pronounce wishes of ill-fate for our slave-masters; we make an assertion of a just and positive demand; our voice booms across the oceans and mountains, over the hills and valleys, in the desert places and through the vast expanse of mankind’s inhabitations, and it calls out for the freedom of Africa. Africa wants her freedom. Africa must be free. It is a simple call, but it’s also a signal lighting a red warning to those who would tend to ignore it”.
These profound words of wisdom included the fate of Royal Monarch of Barotseland and still cry out for motherland Barotseland in the courts and assemblies of UN, AU SADC and other International body lovers of peace, human rights and justice.
As for Southern Africa, I wish to note that the delayed independence of Barotseland your sister nation was in good riddance for the purpose of aiding the organisation and liberation of most of SADC members states while Barotseland was in political cohabitation with Northern Rhodesia, as Zambia, even pre-1960s. Isn’t this time for you to do everything possible in your powers to put Barotseland back on the same African map with fellow African and Southern Africa community of countries? Surely her political stalemate with her coloniser Zambia has reached the breaking point to the extent of potentially threatening peace in the region.
ALUTA CONTINUA! Barotseland ki Nako!