As copied directly from the Zambian Watchdog.
The history on how Zambia was created has remained hidden from the average Zambian through deliberate omission from the school syllabus.
Today even schooled Zambians do not understand why Zambia is called a unitary state or worse still what a unitary state is.
A unitary state is a country that is formed by more than one segment through an agreement or treaty and one common feature of such states is that they can break if the conditions agreed are not observed.
The other formation is a federal state which has similar features and conditions as unitary states. Examples include the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland to which Zambia, (Northern Rhodesia and Barotseland) where part. The Federation broke up because it only benefited the settler interests in Southern Rhodesia.
The third one is a monolithic state formed out of a single entity and some examples are Zimbabwe and Angola, these states are indivisible.
Zambia is or was called a unitary state because it was created out of two separate countries namely the British protectorate of Northern Rhodesia and the British protectorate of Barotseland.
Barotseland became a British protectorate in 1890 and the assurance was conveyed through Lord Knutsford in 1891.
Several assurances were made by the British among them one that read as follows; ‘The Barotse have been assured, repeatedly, that Barotseland is a Protectorate of the Crown, (and) that this status is preserved under the successive Orders-In Council and that they are only part of Northern Rhodesia as an administrative arrangement with safeguards under the Governor representing the Crown.’
A total of 27 assurances were issued by the British Crown among them 1911 Order-In-Council, the 1924 Order-In-Council, and the 1925 Barotse Fund Ordinance under which a special fund was established to fund the running of the Barotseland Government.
The 1953 Special Order- In-Council assured Barotseland Protectorate status within Northern Rhodesia before it could join the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
The Orders-In-Council are what culminated in the 1964 Barotseland Agreement because the two countries should have attained independence separately but entered a treaty to form a unitary state which Zambia did not want to respect and abrogated it in 1969 technically abolishing the unitary state of Zambia
What was agreed in this agreement?
Just like single people cannot sign an agreement to divorce yet not married, the Barotseland Agreement was not about Barotseland breaking away from Zambia but was about the two countries co-existing as one under a unitary arrangement with the motto of One Zambia One nation extracted from the Agreement which read;
‘And where as it is the wish of the government of Northern Rhodesia and the Litunga of Barotseland, his Council and the Chiefs and people of Barotseland that Northern Rhodesia should proceed to independence as one country and that all its peoples should be one nation.’
(One Zambia one nation)
Just as a marriage certificate has no clause for divorce yet there are grounds for divorce if the marriage is not respected, you will not find a clause for secession in the agreement yet there are grounds for breaking or reverting to the previous status if conditions are violated, in this case its Article 70 of the Vienna convention on the law of international treaties which applies.
There is no longer one Zambia one nation without Barotseland because Zambia divorced Barotseland through abrogation of the unity treaty but has held on to Barotseland by force having repeatedly refused to restore the agreement so that the two remain in a unitary arrangement.
The government is aware of the facts and consequences but has kept the Zambian people in the dark. It is for this reason that the Zambian government is scared of having the matter arbitrated by an international body because they know their fate.
Unfortunately for Zambia the matter is now before international bodies and will soon have to explain the truth to Zambians.
The next article will look at the extent of the boundary of Barotseland and whether there is need for a referendum to leave the failed unitary state of Zambia and the position of Southern, North Western and parts of Central Provinces.
Editor's Note: A copy of The Barotseland Agreement 1964 can be found here: http://barotsepost.com/images/important_barotse_documents/The-Barotseland-Agreement-1964.pdf
The much anticipated date and event of presidential by-election is past and indelibly inscribed as one of the pages of the annuls of Zambian history. The day has come and gone, leaving among us souls that are either happy with the outcome, dismayed or indifferent to all the euphoria of the presidential by-election. The big question is what next? Of course, to the Zambian political community all minds now focus on the forthcoming general elections of 2016 when the losers hope to do better while winning PF wishes to maintain power in government, using the same election wiles or other means. On the other hand the Zambian electorate looks forward to the blissful days of enjoying the government service deliverables as manifestoed prior to election.
However, it is not in the best interest of this article for me to articulate on the implications of all this on the indigenous Zambian environment and will therefore do well to rest all discourses on the subject matter with the competent Zambian native analysts. My concern is sharing my views with my dear brothers and sister of Barotseland nativity.
We have said it over and over again in this forum that “resistance to change is a fact of human nature.”
Most of our events are characterized by this phenomenon. Our own change agenda is no exception. Without necessarily disparaging our voting rights a number of us voted hopefully to usher UPND into office “for a better united Zambia” as it were.
Unfortunately all hopes and dreams were shuttered when the final result indicated otherwise-that perhaps in God’s time it is not time for HH to take the reins of power in Zambian politics and government. What I also believe in strongly is the notion that God’s time is the best always; in God’s time and plan over the current status quo between Zambia and Barotseland, HH would be the wrong president over wrong people, unless his roots are also from Northern Rhodesia. But as far as I can reminisce history tells me that Namwala, his home area, is part of Barotseland territorial claim. This observation makes it very serious such that other than seeing the election result a failure for UPND and the sympathizers rather it should be reckoned a blessing in disguise and victory for motherland Barotseland.
In other words, the apparent loss perspective implies that there is truth that most of us are still failing to assimilate into our lifestyle. The lesson however, is, unless we seriously come to terms with our present truth and embrace our dear change accordingly we will keep electioneering in Zambia in search for answers which God has long provisioned back home in Barotseland, in our quest for freedom of independence, original statehood and nationhood, as opposed to our former 50 years of freedom of dependence on Zambia. Our neighbor Zambia knows this very well and hence the frantic efforts not allow that folly to transpire. The other lesson from the election result is that there is no more room for Barotzish in Zambian politics because of what we stand for- clearly we were regarded as foreigners who could not be trusted with instruments of power, even when we were fulltime and co-partners in the birthing of Zambia. Even though we still had the residues of the BA ’64 in the Unitary Republic in later years, history is full of evidence to that effect. Otherwise, why all the fear that “neither Lozi nor Tonga will ever rule Zambia”? This is one reason I have gleaned from some international Zambia friends.
I find it quite perturbing that outsiders know the truth about our Change agenda and yet Barotse citizens still ignore or flirt away their true identity, in the name of love, peace and unity the very virtues that Zambia is abusing for self-aggrandizement. I hope we will take this hard lesson seriously and rise up to the occasion and take up the challenge in waiting for us ahead, as a new nation. We need to assert our true identity wherever we are; in whatever we are and exude the pride and confidence embodied in our reclaimed citizenship and statehood.
While some are not yet complying, it is worth taking advantage of this platform to acknowledge the many that are conforming in many ways to our very dear cause of total independence from Zambia. WE NEED TO BE PROUDLY BAROTSELAND CITIZENS AS NOBODY ELSE CAN DO IT FOR US. ARE YOU? FOR ME TO LIVE, IT IS BECAUSE I AM A LOZI AND TO DIE IT IS BECAUSE OF WHO I AM, THAT ‘S MY MOTTO, UNTIL I SEE THE FULFILLMENT OF ROMANS 17:26
“And hath made of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation...!”
My country and I do not exist coincidentally, but God determined beforehand. This is what roots the certainty of our change agenda. In God’s timetable our day of freedom and independence is certain and coming, to dwell in the bounds of our habitation from ‘Nyambe mushemi wa luna, mufi wa naha yaluna, musilelezi wa bana bahae’ .A –M –E –N!!!!
As I pull myself together to start punching the key board for this write - up, polling stations across Zambia , including Barotseland by default , are busy counting the ballot papers. This means the dice has been cast and the decision has been made in as far as who takes over the mantle of leadership and the instruments of power in Zambia after the demise of one, Michael Chilufya Sata, MHSRIEP. Mr. Sata became famous for his campaign promise to do ‘ everything ’ in ninety (90) days when he becomes president , the ninety days prior to his replacement on the Zambian ‘throne’ have been characterized by mayhem and frenzy and a s well as so much paradox and inconsistencies as to boggle the mind. No wonder someone ended up wishing to go to the moon until the dust in ‘Zed’ settles down.
Watching from the terraces as Mwana’Mulozi , one can only conclude that indeed , ‘A revolution is not a tea party or an invitation to dinner , it is a violent overthrow of one class by another,’ said Chairman Mao Tse Tung of China . The manner in which presidential candidates traversed the land in search of votes, made it seem like a matter of life and death , no wonder we have seen unprecedented levels of violence prior to the actual voting day. This was due to the heat of the intellectual and moral combat spilling over into physical confrontation and violence in the negative sense. If the Zambia presidential candidates can engage each other so fiercely for an opportunity to go to plot one, let no Mwana ’ Mulozi think we can achieve Barotseland statehood by sitting idle, being armchair critics of those in the forefront and only participating by asking the famous question; “Luzamaela kai?” (How far are we?). There is no way we can move to our desired destination while sited in our ‘ Lazy - man’s rocking chair ’ , ever in motion but going nowhere. Actualizing Barotseland statehood is a serious revolution! It cannot be overemphasized that: ‘A revolution is not a tea party or an invitation to dinner; it is a violent overthrow of one class by another ’. I should not be misunderstood to advocate for violence in the negative sense. There is such a thing as being combative intellectually, morally, legally and using many other non - violent ‘violent ’ means to achieve a desired goal. They called it non - violent civil disobedience in the civil rights movement of America and the velvet revolution in the Arab Spring of most recent years
The ‘Zambian game of thrones’ means almost nothing to Barotseland because it is about another country. It is very unfortunate that it ha s actually extended to Barotseland , which has already decided to separate from the rest of Zambia. The auxiliary value of the current presidential elections to Barotseland is to produce the next occupant of the Zambia state house who has to be engaged on the actualization of Barotseland statehood as soon as he or she is sown in to office . In fact , I do not envy Zambia ’ s sixth president at all because we do not intend to give him or her the luxury of a honey - moon even for a week after the swearing in ceremony . As advocates for the statehood of Barotseland and activists for Barotseland ’ s Right to self - determination, we are in a hurry to actualize the aspiration of the people of Barotseland who strongly BELIEVE in their RIGHT to SELF - DETERMINATION and SELF - RULE
Barotseland issue, which has haunted Zambian politicians of all ages whether they admit it or not. The exchange of opinion and ideas on the Barotseland issue clearly demonstrate that it is a crucial issue that cannot be taken lightly by any sane person that aspires to occupy Zambia ’ s highest office. Sometimes people think that the Barotseland issue in Zambia is a none - issue once they enter in to state house . However, it has been a key election issue especially since the dawn of democracy in a multiparty environment in 1991. It can actually be said that some politicians as crafty and subtle as snakes have used the issue to gain entrance into state house. Let no one be deceived that the Barotseland issue is a none - issue in as far as Zambia is concern ed for it is the foundation of Zambia as a jurisdiction. This time round , it is even more crucial in the wake of the March 2012 Barotse National Council (BNC) resolutions , which have rendered Zambia a failed unitary state when the people of Barotseland finally opted out since she cannot continue to be part o f a union that ha s been trivialized , violated and unilaterally abrogated with scornful impunity by the other party .
Among the current crop of men and one woman running for the office of president for the failed unitary state of Zambia, the one that spoke with so much clarity over the Barotseland issue is Dr Ludwig Sondashi, a constitutional lawyer and native of Kaonde land in what is today called the North - western province of Zambia. I must confess , it felt so relieving and indeed refreshing to hear someone speak with so much clarity about Barotseland’s right to self - determination and self - rule . The learned Sondashi clearly stated among other things that:
- Barotseland is not a province of Zambia and , therefore , not like any province of Zambia. It was (until 27th March 2012) in fact a state within a state just like it was a protectorate within a protectorate from 1911 to 1964.
- Zambia cannot be Zambia as we know it without Barotseland and the Barotseland Agreement 1964 on one side and Barotseland cannot be part of Zambia without the Barotseland Agreement 1964 on the other side .
- The decision as to whether Barotseland should be part of Zambia (upon the restoration of the BA ’ 64 of course) or pursue its own independent statehood (as per the March 2012 BNC Resolutions) is a preserve of the people of Barotseland alone without the interference of the rest of Zambia
The position of Dr. Sondashi is not an afterthought but clearly spelt out in the Forum for Development Alternatives manifesto . What is interesting is that the learned Kaonde man has not been cited for treason or treason felony by the powers that be . Neither has his party been outlawed for being divisive nor his manifesto classified as being seditious material
Another candidate who made his position clear on Barotseland was Dr Nevers S. Mumba , of the Movement for Multi-Party Democracy who , among other things said that he will immediately embark on preparations for a Barotseland exclusive referendum to determine the course to be taken by Barotseland and its people, if elected to be the sixth president of the failed unitary state of Zambia . While other people and activists saw no need for a referendum when the people of Barotseland have already decide to separate from the rest of Zambia through the BNC resolutions, I am glad that the man of God w as conscious enough to at least know that t he Barotse reserve the right to determine their future. After all I BELIEVE the Barotse people are so fade up of the Zambian fallacy that no matter how many times you ask them in whatever form — BNC, referendum or otherwise — their answer is the same — self - determination and self - rule — just as they resolved in the March 2012 BNC resolutions. The other Candidates were mute about the issue except, Eric Chanda, leader for the Fourth Revolution who opened his mouth only to expose his total ignorance about the whole issue.
A number of things come to the fore in my min d at least, as a result of the electioneering debate , among which are :
- No Mwana ’ Mulozi from whatever walk of life should ever shy away from speaking freely about Barotseland ’ s Right to self - determination and self - rule or indeed participating in any way possible, from now henceforth because “ IT IS NOT TREASON TO SEEK FREEDOM! ” Dr. Ludwig Sondashi our traditional cousin ’ s example is there for all to see .
- Let it be known that it does not matter who wins the race to plot one. The people s of Barotseland are determined to actualize Barotseland statehood.
- There shall be no honeymoon or relaxing after the electioneering marathon. Zambia ’ s sixth president must touch the ground running over the issue of Barotseland.
- The Barotse people should be prepared to declare to the world at any time and in any w ay, that they BELIEVE IN BAROTSELAND’s RIGHT to SELF - DETERMINATION and SELF - RULE, nothing will change that. No matter how many times they are asked and w h at ever method is used. T he people of Barotseland should demonstrate that they have declared as per the March 2012 resolutions .
The people of Barotseland can hardly wait for the declaration of the sixth president of the failed unitary state of Zambia so as to prepare to lock horns with him or her on the transitional arrangements towards the Barotseland statehood . This is an issue that the past five presidents have not dared to do . By handling this issue he or she will stand up head and shoulder above his or her predecessors - BNFA.INFO
Zambia's sixth president Edgar Lungu must touch the ground running over the issue of Barotseland, there is no honeymoon on this issue. Our 2012 BNC resolutions are clear and empathetic. Barotseland's right to self rule cannot be denied to her by any one as it hinges on public international law. We believe in the right to self determination and nothing can change our resolve even in the face of death.
During the run up to Zambia's sixth presidential election, Ludwig Sondashi and Nevers Mumba freely discussed this issue and none was arrested and charged with treason. Why should it only become treason when discussed by Lozi nationals? This exposes Zambia's double standards and it should be a wakeup call to all the people of Barotseland that Zambia holds worst consideration for Barotseland. The utterances of Dr. Ludwig Sondashi are worthy reading knowing that they come from a Zambian constitutional lawyer:-
- "Barotseland is not a province of Zambia and, therefore, not like any province of Zambia. It was (until 27th March 2012) in fact a state within a state just like it was a protectorate within a protectorate from 1911 to 1964.
- The decision as to whether Barotseland should be part of Zambia (upon the restoration of the BA’64 of course) or pursue its own independent statehood (as per the March 2012 BNC Resolutions) is a preserve of the people of Barotseland alone without the interference of the rest of Zambia"
One is confronted with a question, though, why the Zambian government did not arrest and charge Dr. Sondashi of treason felony? Neither has his party been outlawed for being 'divisive' nor his manifesto classified as being 'seditious' material, as many other Zambians commented on this issue but were left Scot free without arrest. This accords a rare window into the thinking and rationale of the Zambian government's views on the Barotseland issue. Therefore, Lozis from all walks of life should now be speaking freely about Barotseland's Right to self-determination and self-rule or indeed participating in any way possible because IT IS NOT TREASON TO SEEK FREEDOM.
We expect the Barotseland patriot for independence and the BRE to engage the new Zambian president Edgar Lungu to immediately start the negotiations of disengagement as tricksters will never be tolerated. Remember that this is the man who exhibits worst considerations of Barotseland and never said anything about it during his presidential message campaigns. We expect tougher time ahead with this man from the way he handled it when he was a minister of Home affairs and Defense; he militarized our territory, arrested our activists and detained them for months without trial, even now the Administrator General of Barotseland provisional government and others are still incarceration at Mwembeshi state prison. The people of Barotseland will not take it kindly with Zambia should the issue of Barotseland not be given serious considerations it deserves and the Lukewarm altitude of the BRE will not be accommodated.
By Saleya Kwalombota
I do not delight in talking of the recent Zambian presidential by-election results for the reason that Zambia as a unitary state no longer exists. However, it is worthy analyzing the outcome of the presidential results. It is worthy of note that the outcome of Zambia's presidential by-election has exposed that Zambia is indeed a divided country, contrary to the one 'Zambia one nation' slogan misinterpreted to be the uniting of 73 Zambian ethnic tribes. However, this result has not come as a surprise to most, because since Independence, Zambia has never had a president from the region that was once under Barotseland North western Rhodesia, unless anointed by a Bemba clique within the ruling party e.g the late Levy Mwanawasa. The vote has clearly being divided along the lines of the old boundaries of Barotseland North Western Rhodesia on one side and the North Eastern Rhodesia on the other, with the latter voting predominantly for the wining candidate, Edgar Lungu, in the 20th January 2015. This in itself is not the worrying issue, but what is very worrying is the backlash being received by the tribes hailing from the other side who opted to vote for the losing candidate, Hakainde Hichilema, who are now being called all sorts of unprintable words and names for not having voted for their winning candidate!
For the past 50 years, Zambia has been running a scheme to oppress and hurt Lozi nationals and ethnic tribes of North western Rhodesia. Talking to any Lozi hailing from Barotseland from all the walks of life, except those whose stomachs are fed by the PF oppressive regime, they will confess that they are genuinely hurt. The hatred for the Lozi nationals and tribes of former North western Rhodesia is rife in every sphere of life in Zambia and now it has even turned into a terminally illness without cure, hence the justifiable call of the Patriots for Barotseland independence. Lozis are not seeking attention, but respect of their inalienable right of self determination. Zambia is a Christian nation and as Christians believe, in particular, that without shedding of Jesus's blood, there could be no salvation. The blood of Jesus Christ still speaks even today. In the same vein the Barotseland activist’s blood that was shed in 2011 is speaking up to now until the reason it was shed for is accomplished, there is no turning back.
It should not be forgotten that the ‘One Zambia and One Nation’ slogan was corrupted by the Kaunda regime, contrary to a social unifying slogan as many people perceive it today, but an anthropological and sociological scheme formulated to devalue the status of the Lozis in Zambia and its results can be seen on the faces of many Lozis in Barotseland. Unfortunately, despite their education, intelligence and being predisposed to leadership, many elite Lozis of profound standing bought into the slogan for the sake of their stomachs, selfishness and greediness which has led Barotseland to its present day enslavement. It is not a hidden fact that most of the prominent Lozis that became Dr. Kaunda’s close associates became Lozi sell-outs. Even today, they will never stand for the noble cause of freeing Barotseland from the yokes of discrimination, poverty, illiteracy and disease which came as a result of bonding Barotseland to thieves. And today the hatred for the Lozis and North western Rhodesian tribes is no longer a secret, but it has been professionalized.
In Zambia today, it is neither a crime nor a sin for most of the private radio and television stations located in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, which are licensed to broadcast in English as the official language but instead, have resorted to using only two native languages, that is, Bemba and Nyanja. Even the national’s Public Broadcaster ZNBC, despite English being the official language, their DJs and TV presenters have also resorted to only using two native languages in addition to English to the displeasure of well meaning Zambians.
If the time for the Lozi people has come for them to restore their territory, why should a person who does not hail from Barotseland stop them in the first place? Zambia has no powers, whatsoever, to continue enslaving the Lozi nationals. The people are tired of discrimination, segregation, poverty, arrests and subjugation.
By Saleya Kwalombota
I submit herein my own views regarding this very dear subject that has overwhelmed our motherland since March 2012. In particular, the recent and current developments in and around Barotseland cannot be sidestepped without comment.
First and foremost I wish to reiterate that our change agenda which culminated into the 2012 BNC resolution is final and certain indeed. However, we still keep hearing and seeing dissident behaviour from those among us and purportedly with us, in our struggle for total Barotse Independence Agenda. With the upcoming presidential by-elections in Zambia it will not be surprising to see more of our people aligning themselves especially with the party that evidently is promising to take away the majority vote and form the next Zambian government, following the demise of the late president there. What is more heartbreaking is the fact that it is mostly the seasoned politicians at home choosing to play the role of Judas Iscariot. To me this means that all Barotse youth should own the total independence agenda seriously without depending much on the elderly some of whom are seeking milk and honey in the Zambian political arena.
To our leaders, I would like you to take comfort and wisdom in a quote from one scholar on management Tetenbaum (1998) who asserts that “ to be a successful manager in the 21st century……calls for a new mental model of manager, one suited to the world of chaos” (p 31). He further adds that if the manager fails in this regard they will “find themselves leading their organisations into oblivion” (Tetenbaum, 1998:31). The 21st century is well known as a chaos century in the school of management because chaos seems to be its most dominant characteristic norm.
Much has been said before in preceding articles, on the subject of Barotse change; as to why resistance to change by both individuals and organisations. I even shared with readers some of the strategies useful in overcoming resistance to change at the discretion of our leaders as follows:
- Education and communication programmes. We appreciate greatly what our media houses are doing to this effect, under the daunting circumstances they are operating in. With funds availed by all well-wishers and progressive people more will be done for the same cause.
- Participation. It is the duty of all of us to participate in whatever way possible; networking with our neighbours, praying for leadership and Barotse and other methods, including donating time, intellect, money or any other resource of worth. This is the best way I believe for one to show patriotism and not when the independence project is already delivered or realised
- Facilitation and support; for instance our interim government needs this from us all. Our own adage states that “munwana ulimunw’i a ukoni ku tuba nda” . The equivalent English idiom says “two heads are better than one”. That is why TUKONGOTE WA MWANAA NONGOLO and KOPANO KI MAATA, all familiar maxims.
- Negotiation; with whoever matters or stands in our way to ultimate freedom of independence. The Barotse Government is busy at it realizing that it is an important ingredient to our total package of securing what is ours – Barotse nation.
- Manipulation; where need be to actualize our goal. Actually, without really connoting any negativity, manipulation here looks at the strategic planning which is crucial to all of us not just to our leaders.
- Coercion; sometimes this is necessary like the Lord God dealt with lot and his family from Sodom. Some of our people need to be rescued the Lot’s way from the stupor of their utter shock and disbelief of the Barotse nation status quo, or even deculturation process we went through during the 50 years period of slavery in Zambia. Otherwise, these are the same people who will blame it on the leadership someday for not providing the needed leadership.
Otherwise, so far so good as our leadership continues to show commitment and skill in employing these strategies to make the new nation of Barotse a learning environment. However, there is always room for improvement as mortals and I think we need to intensify our effort in these areas now more than has been the case so far, as need may be.
JUST HOW CAN WE CREATE THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN BAROTSELAND?
Let me take a bit of your time, dear reader, to expatiate on the subject of Barotse Change and Learning Environment. Among other responsibilities our leaders have is to ensure the transformation of Barotseland into a LEARNING ORGANIZATION which provides for risk taking, exploration and toleration of failure. In other words, we all know that as Barotse nation we are divided into three categories in as far as this change agenda is concerned. These categories include the risk averse, risk taking and the risk neutral. The risk averse includes all those individual Barotzish wishing to identify themselves with Zambians for various economic, social reasons and political gains while shunning the duty call at home kwa Bulozi. The risk neutral are the indifferent and diffident citizens who do not have a decided stand but are ready to flow with the majority. Last but not the least are the risk takers in the likes of all our brave and resilient leaders in their varied types (From mwa lapa to Namuso and Interim Barotse Government).
Creating a learning organization out of Barotseland may be defined as the groups and teams of Barotzish working together to collectively, while accepting each other’s uniqueness, to enhance our capacities to create results that we truly care about-an independent Barotse nation. To achieve this synergy of a learning organization we need a continuous capacity to adapt and change. This means, among others, our ability to adapt and change to advice and render our strategy and change management work for us within our time bounds.
In conclusion let me assert that a leader in Barotseland can build and manage a learning organization through implementing five main activities namely:
1. Systematic problem solving; using the principles of total quality management. Even in our poor and disadvantaged state we can keep dreaming about quality in all we do, if we cannot achieve it now. This may not make much sense now but with time it will be quite mandatory that we talk quality, as we begin to run our affairs as a nation. If at all we will mind about quality services and/or products in independent Barotseland then the blue print must be framed now and be entrenched in the various policy documents being drafted. This requires adopting scientific methods for solving problems and not relying on guess work. This further entails the utilization of statistical tools and Barotse data, and not assumptions to guide our decision making. For example, we should know by now roughly how many Barotzis are at home, those estranged in Zambia and in the diaspora, including all the other demographic data to inform our planning.
2. Experimentation; referring to the systematic searching for and testing of new knowledge in managing our change agenda. In the world we live in today knowledge economy is a booming and vital discipline among many that we know. This may require that our leaders work closely with experts or knowledge workers to redeem and harness back home the brain drain that Barotseland has suffered for many years. In effect problem solving can be encouraged through the ongoing programmes which provide for incremental gains in knowledge and demonstration projects which involve holistic, Barotsewide changes, introduced at village level and escalated upwards aimed at developing new national capabilities. It is not right to assume that all citizens know fully what is happening on the ground especially given the levels of intimidation prevalent from/by the Zambian occupying forces.
3. Learning from past experiences; involves the Barotse Team Organisation reviewing our past failures and successes, so far, from the signing of BA ’64 to many other actions inclusive of our being duped by PF in 2011. What message do we get from our failures and successes? This information must clearly be availed to all citizens. I categorically appreciate what has been done so far to this very end as concerns our historic 50 years of servitude to Zambia-much information has been dag up to inform our change momentum. Notwithstanding, it is quite painful as Barotse youth to see our elders still yoking themselves with the Zambian Parties for the ‘ politics of the stomach’ as it were, at the expense their role and function in the great web of Barotse citizenship. With our past experience so far I would not hasten to say that actually this is the time and opportunity to affirm our stance to the whole world by totally boycotting the Zambian presidential by-election on our soil! Maybe foreigners can be allowed with permission from powers that be in our land, and ECZ educated on this matter. The mere fact that Zambia has littered our country with military hardware, software and persware is good motive for this action. Not forgetting the incarceration of our BNYL leaders and now Hon. Afumba Mombotwa, the Administrator General of the Barotseland (head of the interim government) and others in prisons for being ‘lindwalume za mwa hae’ and champions of our real and genuine cause. The chapters of history repeating itself are closed and open are the pages bearing the lesson from the history.
4. Learning from others; both within Barotseland and from outside. We applaud the work done so far by our leaders in consulting with others all over; no man is an island.
5. Transferring knowledge; where knowledge is spread throughout the nation in an efficient and quick manner. Mechanisms to achieve this spread of knowledge include visual, audio and oral reports, village visits, tours and so on whichever is possible. This means that we need to see more utilization of channels of communication followed by measuring learning through follow- ups like the use of questionnaires, interviews and surveys just to ascertain that our communication with the grassroots and others is not one way.
The whole idea is to put everybody on board to ensure that we speak the same language and walking the same walk of our liberation struggle. However, it must be noted that LEARNING IS PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR; our thoughts, actions and words must all be consistent with our resolve of self-determination. With us the youth this is possible to achieve if our leaders teach and direct us accordingly. With the old however, some may still be suffering from the syndrome of OLD HABITS DIE HARD. This is why some of the sporadic cases of dissidence and defections of some of our elders to rally with Zambian leaders.
To all of you our change agents from Namuso, milenen’I kaufela, Barotse media institutions like Barotse Post, Limulunga Post, Barotse Radio Station, BNYL, Linyungandambo, Barotse National Council and the Barotse populace.
Dearest brothers and sisters, this letter is written to you all ‘bana ba poho yensu, mambumbwe a liyambai’ in recognition of the good work and sacrifice you are making in the best interest of our motherland Barotseland – once the richest land in our territory but now the poorest and yet endowed with vast countless economic resources part of which were used to liberate our lovely neighbours during their independence struggles, as well as develop Zambia to where it is today. How could this be? Now our day is here and it is time to liberate our country and develop it. This is our Core Business.
Change is the name of the game in management today, in the 21st century. This means that what is happening in our motherland Barotseland is neither new nor strange but a long anticipated outcome of our quest for self-determination - it was long overdue! All welcome it; the Barotse natives, our enemies and well-wishers. The reactions we see today are only that change is often met with resistance.
The upshot of all this is that it is imperative for you our leaders in the forefront (Governors, and Managers) that you must not only learn to cope with the change but also learn to manage it, so that we all move forward as a united front, regardless of the peoples' different classes: Those from outright resistance, through partial resistance, to partial acceptance and full acceptance.
I need to emphasise this point here that from now on change management (Self-determination) and Barotseland development are synonymous, as our CORE BUSINESS. From the very onset this change has been initiated and implemented by you our leaders, in your various capacities, with the assistance of change agents.
This is someone, organisation or groups of people in charge of change initiative in an organisation. The change agent is a person(s) who acts as a catalyst and assumes the responsibility for managing change activities (Robbins, 2002). Wherever you are and whoever you are note yourselves and hold on to the nobble task you are pursuing for the sake of our motherland. Even if you are in power, well-wishers or in Police Custody, the Holy Bible asks a very important question that “can an Ethiopian change his skin?” You are doing what you are doing just because you are a Lozi! You cannot change the fact nor do otherwise unless one is a relative to Judas Iscariot to betray Barotseland. So cheer up change agents; one Lozi’s fate is a fate for us all.
Always remember that, as change agents, you are the leaders of the change initiative, leading and guiding the process of implementing change in our beautiful country. And as such, you identify, propose or initiate and guide the change initiative from start to finish through all the particular phases, in order that we drive the required change in our country to its logical conclusion and aspired glory. This means that there is hardly any time to relax or relent.
Types of Change Agents
I wish to submit here that there are three types of change agents we have in Barotseland namely
• Internal agents – those combating from within the beautiful land of Borotse,
• External agents – those strategizing from without in the diaspora, and
• Combination agents – those committed to the liberation of Barotseland as both types, caught between Zambia and Barotseland.
Styles of Change Agents
Harvey and Brown (2006:100-103) discuss five styles that a change agent could use in implementing a change initiative. The change style used is an approach that the change agent uses in affecting and effecting change, being influenced by your convictions and understanding of the situation at hand, at home. These include the following:
• The Stabiliser Style.
• The Cheerleader Style.
• The Analyser Style.
• The Persuader Style.
• The Pathfinder Style.
Please note that some of you are a combination of two, more or all of these styles. It does not matter at all, as long as the desired strategic vision, mission and Barotseland values are not staked. We love you all and your varied combinations give the needed flavour and synergy to the nature and impetus of our change programme.
Change Agent Roles
Change agents assume the following roles and in their varied combinations, as they discharge their mandate:
• Initiate (Initiators),
• implement (Implementers) and
• Manage change (Managers).
Consequences of Change
When planned change is implemented in any organisation, it will inevitably have consequences, depending on the magnitude of the planned change. Our change in particular is both transformational and strategic, cutting across the whole Barotseland as positive change. The consequences of change can also be negative. Examples here include chaos and entropy i.e. inability to change. We must diligently guard against the latter duo of chaos and entropy.
Change Agent Skills
From what I have attempted to put across to the readers so far it becomes evident that your role of change agent is complex, dynamic and becoming more demanding, especially so as we progress from one change phase to another in our struggle for self-determination.
Therefore, I wish to remind you all of the skills that have been found by research and practice to be more important to the change agent’s role. These skills are:
a) Leadership; your ability to motivate, direct and keep every Barotse National focussed on the National values and the change that needs to be changed can neither be underestimated nor overemphasised.
b) Project Management Skills; change agents need to display ability to organise the liberation programme into a project and show the requisite project management skills to manage the change programme successfully to enhance the chances of success all the way. I say this because it is common knowledge that the enemy is waiting to see any elements of discordant behaviour among us and deride us.
c) Problem-Solving Skills; this is the ability of change agents to accurately diagnose the problems that still remain unresolved in our country that pose to be threats to the achievement of our noble cause successfully. Let us also propose and implement workable solutions to this end so that everyone is kept aboard; united and focused. TUKONGOTE WA MWANAA NONGOLO!!
d) The ability to work with people; let us tirelessly continue to work with others and build relationships with natives and well-wishers in order to give the impetus to the change effort.
e) Personal; as individuals let us be mindful of our personal factors and use them to their maximum potential. As change agents we need to exude confidence in the commitment we have at hand, while being able to make tough decisions and introduce new techniques to work for us positively. And last but not the least,
f) Communication Skills; this is very critical to the successful completion of our Liberation and Development Change Programme Agenda, as our Core-Business. We salute our media houses for their relentless efforts in communicating the message to us time and again.
Allow me to conclude this article by reminding you all of the main sources of fear or resistance to change which also apply to our situation. Our knowledge of these factors will help us to handle the programme successfully too, besides enabling us to understand the different reactions of our stakeholders from time to time, like we have noted so far.
RESISTANCE FACTOR: IMPLICATIONS/CAUSES: REMARK(S)/EXPLANATION(S)
Ignorance: Failure to understand the problem at hand: People who are ignorant about the BA64 and its various legal connotations and overtones may show lack of understanding of what is happening in Barotseland.
Comparison: Solution is disliked; alternative is thought to be better: Some opposing the change may be due to still enjoying their “comfort zones” in Zambia.
Disbelief: Feel that solution will not work: Some resistance to our change in Barotseland is because of lack of confidence that we can manage our own affairs! Whoops!!!!!!
Loss: Have unacceptable personal costs: Some resistance may be due to perceived personal loses like in intermarriages, business partnerships, career pursuits, etc.
Fortunately, these life realities are neither new nor unique to Barotse.
All our neighbours went through it and when it was time up natives went back home to be participants in national building and development.
Inadequacy: Insufficient rewards from change: Some are resisting our change programme because they don’t have answers as yet regarding their aspired glory aggrandisements!
We need to remember that our greatest motive is to benefit our motherland AND NOT vice versa. That is how true patriotism works.
Anxiety: Afraid of coping in the new situation/fear of being “found out” :No need to fear anything since everything that exists today has had its own humble beginnings. We will get there; because we can do it too.
Demolition: Risk of destroying social network: Quite self-explanatory. But who said social networks are only people living within the same country or geographic region? What will be the role of IT today?
Power cut: Erosion of influence or control: Some change resistance is due to perceived fears of power cuts in current positions enjoyed. Remember that since you were not born in that position there is still a second chance for you even after/during the change programme, for all who are able, willing and available.
Contamination: Distaste for new values and practices: Ours is not a campaign for new values proposition but the restoration of the old values contaminated by the Zambish immoral practices of theft, corruption, etc.
Inhibition: Low willingness to change: There is always room to catch up with the rest of change agents when the shock of change is past. We all react differently to change. So take heart, all is not lost yet.
Mistrust: Disquietude about motives for change. Vesting oneself with all the BA64 documentation is the source of our being and mission and vision.
Alienation: Low shared values or high interest in alternatives: Having been Zambianised for all these years is surely enough cause for feelings of alienation espoused by some, once required to get back home and rebuild our looted Barotseland.
Frustration: Reduces political power and career opportunities: That political power and career opportunities have home still in Barotseland, as an emerging power and player member of the Global Political Village.
In other words, Barotseland has all the opportunities we can think of.
Even Christians understand that at one time in Biblical history God sanctioned the separation of biological nation into two kingdoms of Northern and southern (Israel) administered in Samaria and Judah respectively. The rest of the story is an open book for all who may learn life’s most treasured truths.
Thank you very much for taking time to refresh your minds by reading this article.
TUKONGOTE WA MWANAA NONGOLO!!!!!
Lindunda (La Mulonga) Wamunyima
Thrilled by the inspirational report from Mwembeshi as reported by Bo Saleya Kwalombota I could not hold myself but felt the need to share this screed with our Ngulutayutoya readers. Great is the work you our teachers are doing! Probably this Japanese proverb will put it better: that “Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher.” I have no doubt this was the Mwembeshi visiting team’s experience. Those men are teaching us great lessons of self-sacrificing and self-denial! Right away I was reminded the words of Kuan Chung who once said, “If you plan for a year, plant a seed. If for ten years, plant a tree. If for a hundred years, teach people. When you saw a seed once, you will reap a single harvest. When you teach people, you will reap a hundred harvests.” Planting and teaching have much in common. That is how great a teacher is in life though often underappreciated.
First and foremost I wish to personally extend my heartfelt gratitude to all those gallant Lozi men and women who took time off to visit our incarcerated leaders and teachers. That is the spirit bahesu! Ni kamuso hape!! Whatever you did it was in our behalf as a nation of Barotseland. May the Good Lord, who knows best how to bless mankind bless you accordingly, even as you fulfill the words found in the Holy Writ “Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I WAS IN PRISON, AND YE CAME UNTO ME. “Matthew 25: 34-36, NKJV. This is something that we need to do to each other regardless of our barriers: whether we are biologically related or not, whether politically /ideologically related or not. As long as we have the Barotzish blood flowing in us we are members of one web of Barotse Nation. As such, it does not help me to stand aloof because like rings in a chain the misfortune of one ring renders the whole chain useless until replaced or mended. Similarly, what befalls one of us indirectly or directly affects the entire web of Barotse, whether we want it or not, whether we like it or not, whether we know it or not.
Of particular interest is the following quotation which I want to follow up further, in my screed; Bo Mutompehi Mombotwa “further, emphasized the need to remain focused, resolute, resolved and never to lose sight of our vision." He mentioned that where there was no vision people perished. (Proverbs 29:18, verse supplied) “The underlying factor,” he said was to “extend and strengthen the ties among the provisional leadership, the Monarch and all the people of Barotseland in order TO CULTIVATE AND CONSOLIDATE THE MUCH NEEDED MINDSET CHANGE.”
Allow me right from here dear compatriots to categorically discuss the story of Barotseland freedom into three parts. This time around I strongly believe that Barotse teachers need to come on board seriously and help entrench this much needed mindset among our people, in the quest for total liberation of Barotseland from Zambian servitude. Surely to undo the nearly 50 years of Zambianized mindset in our people requires the services of our teachers too, to acculturate us into our true identity; for Education is light and lack of it is darkness. One of the purposes of a good teacher is to develop learners who can create or find their own identity and not to be mere reflectors of the teacher’s image. As a peace loving people this will prove to be one of the most effective instruments we can use to drive home our agenda. By teachers here I mean the tri-une of the TEACHING AGENT; at home, church and formal school.
Dan Rather once said “The dream begins most of the time, with a teacher who believes in you, who tugs and pushes and leads you on to the next plateau, sometimes poking you with a sharp stick called truth.” One such truth is the fact that there is no life without death, looking at great agricultural lessons of seeding and germination. You will notice here that the process is irreversible once it has started. What am I trying to say? The deaths of our fallen heroes and heroines since 1969 have given life and impetus to our struggle and in as much as their deaths are not reversible so is our freedom struggle. Isn’t this the reason why Christians cerebrate Easters? The death of Jesus Christ brought victory as well make it certain. Or using Bo Mungandi’s train experience and analogy, once the train has started off it is either one gets on board, alights, or gives way. Paraphrasing Mr. Mukunyandela’s words – our total independence can only be delayed but will surely come to pass at the fullness of time. That is the certainty of our present truth
and national destiny.
The second truth to learn from our liberation struggle is that the BNC 2012 was the climax and official time for germination or birthday of Barotse nation from Zambian yoke and as such, now is time to rejoice and not to cast down our faces in despair. We see here once again that birth is irreversible. Even when the vestiges of gestation still linger on (e.g. placenta usually follows birth of baby) there is usually jubilation; a family exude joy that a baby is born and will not go back into the womb.
BA'64 restoration is impossible! Consequently, we should not be dismayed by the remnants of Zambianship in us for old habits die hard. It is the work of the teacher to help us grow up through the process of unlearning the past in order to learn our new way of life; character building or reformatory is not an overnight job. If only our people could understand that this is time to "exude the change; to eat change, act change, behave change, smell change, wear change, sing the change, dance the change, communicate change, walk and travel the change, think change, speak change and last but not the least, it is time to plan the change, organize the change, coordinate change and lead the change.” In other words, it is time to fully embrace the change in every way of our being malozi without fear, remorse or any upbraiding. In our desire to realize this mindset in the nation we need to challenge ourselves as individuals to change our mindset foremost. Charity begins at home; Namuso, Provisional Leadership and Commoners at large.
The third truth to learn from our freedom struggle is that ‘we have to cry out’ like a newly born baby to sustain our new way of life. From the baby’s viewpoint it is very cruel of a nurse to ‘slap’ the baby to cry. Ironically, it is a necessary activity if the baby is to start breathing and survive. Mwana ya salili ushwela mwa tali! What relevance has this analogy to our freedom struggle? In as much as the activities of Zambia toward us are painful or fatal we must see them in the sanity of the path to freedom; it is not flowery and will never be. The more these acts are committed against us the more we should cry out in the innocence of our peaceful protests and other similar activities, against the insidious acts by the occupying forces and the government thereof. Surely our leaders have been in illegal detentions for too long at the expense of justice! Our crying out means carrying out meaningful, effective and efficient activities on our part the newly born Barotse citizens. Some of these include growing up and developing, being on the move on Barotse errands, filtering out any dangers to our newly found nationhood, showing and radiating energy for the movement, being sensitive to change around and within us, reproducing fellow compatriots in deed and spirit as well as feeding ourselves with information and news about our story all "to cultivate and consolidate the much needed mindset change.”
Apart from holding peaceful protests, teaching our neighbours or employing the teaching social network (TSN) can also be very effective; the Jesus model, after His resurrection en route to Emmaus. Teaching is effective because it is an activity that involves learning, where learning is permanent change in behaviour (thoughts, action and/or words), the mindset we crave in our people. This means that learning is something that learners do (both the reflective and un-reflective response to teaching) and not something done to them (teaching); learning is not teaching and teaching is not learning, as different sides of the same coin called education! Therefore, let learners do their work as teachers do theirs in our struggle for total independence. Wherever change has taken place mostly it has not been without the process of learning and teaching. Bulelela ndambo wa hao kwa hae, keleke, musebezi kapa banana kwa sikolo niti ya Bulozi. This is self-assertion written about in this forum before by our able scholars.
Teacher! You have a great responsibility because, among other reasons the future of Barotseland is in your ‘classroom’ today, a future with the potential for good or bad depending on how you play out your commitment. I need not remind you that several future leaders, teachers and doctors are learning from you today, so are the great writers of the next decades, and so are all the so called ordinary people who often times will make the decisions in our democratic monarchy by voting or other means. You must never forget that these same people could be the thieves, betrayers and murderers of tomorrow, just because of you the teacher! Say thank you to God for giving you a call to the greatest profession of all! Therefore, you must be vigilant every day, lest you lose one fragile opportunity to improve future Barotseland.
Remember also that God gives opportunities but success depends on the use made of them. If you want to be a mediocre teacher you will only tell about our freedom struggle. If you want to be a good teacher you will explain it, and if a superior teacher you will demonstrate what it means to be Barotzish, but a great teacher you are if you can inspire your learners to be free Malozi! In other words tell it, explain it, demonstrate it and inspire it in us, all because you are the Teacher!
If you want to reach a child’s mind as a teacher you must capture his heart. This is because only if a child feels right can he think right! The formula works better that way. When our prodigal, dissident, diffident and doubtful people begin to feel the darkness of being second class citizen in your own land then will they begin to think aright homeward bound! It is not easy for anyone who is still in the denial stage of our change agenda to just accept it. Teachers exist to make the desired learning outcomes to occur in every Lozi learner. SO YOURS IS CHARACTER BASED (CB) FIRST AND THEN OUTCOME BASED (OB) EDUCATION IN BAROTSELAND! That is, our struggle requires first and foremost the passion of compatriots who have a native character to affect the desired national outcomes. In my view this is why the issue of mindset change is so crucial this time around, in God’s great clock of our reckoning and time.
When all will have been said and done it will not be important to ask what kind of teacher you will have been. Rather, it will be more important to ask: What kind of human Lozi have you been to your learners who are also human lozis? Were you a lozi ‘character’ first and then a teacher? Your Lozi humanity should clothe your teaching. When this happens, your learners are built and empowered into the future citizens envisaged of the free Barotse state. When our teaching clothes humanity, our learners will fail to grow as individual and patriotic Lozi citizens; that is, if we reverse the formula of CB – OB to OB - CB.